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How to Build Self-Esteem in Teens & Adults with a History of Abuse
10 CEUs How to Build Self-Esteem in Teens & Adults with a History of Abuse

Section 31
Bibliography & Selected Readings/ Authors/ Instructors

Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | Self-Esteem CEU Courses
Social Worker CEU, Psychologist CE, Counselor CEU, & MFT CEU

If you would like additional information on this topic,
below are OPTIONAL books to consider buying for your personal library...

 

-Alavi H. R. (2011). The Role of Self-esteem in Tendency towards Drugs, Theft and Prostitution. Addiction & health, 3(3-4), 119–124.

- Bergner, Raymond M.;  "Pathological Self-Criticism: Assessment and Treatment."  Plenum Press.  New York, NY.  1995.

- Bouvier, P. (2003). Child sexual abuse: vicious circles of fate or paths to resilience. Lancet, 361(9356).

- Carlson, Richard, Ph.D.;  "You Can Feel Good Again."  Dutton published by Penguin Books.  New York, NY.  1993.

- Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L. L.; Yang, Jing. Implicit Self-Esteem Decreases in Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE. Feb2014, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p1-5.

- Cai, Huajian, Mingzheng Wu, Yu L. L. Luo, Jing Yang, Implicit Self-Esteem Decreases in Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study, Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, February 25, 2014, p1-5.

- Cahill, Helen Associate Professor, Beadle, Sally, Farrelly, Anne, Forster, Ruth, and Smith, Kylie Dr. Building resilience in children and young people. A Literature Review for the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD). Youth Research Centre, Melbourne Graduate School of Education. University of Melbourne.

- Cummings, Jorden A., Adele M. Hayes, LeeAnn Cardaciotto and Cory F. Newman, The Dynamics of Self-Esteem in Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders: An Adaptive Role of Self-Esteem Variability?, National Institute of Health, January 1, 2013, p1-16.

- Division of Injury Prevention and Control. Resiliency Building Activities for Children. North Dakota Department of Health.

- Hall, A., & Torres, I. (2002). Partnerships in preventing adolescent stress: increasing self-esteem, coping, and support through effective counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(2).

-- Henriksen, I. O., Ranøyen, I., Indredavik, M. S., & Stenseng, F. (2017). The role of self-esteem in the development of psychiatric problems: a three-year prospective study in a clinical sample of adolescents. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 11, 68. doi:10.1186/s13034-017-0207-y.

- Helmstetter, Shad, Ph.D.;  "What To Say When You Talk to Yourself."  Simon & Schuster.  New York, NY.  1982.

- Information from your Primary Care Team Self-Esteem, Center for Integrated Healthcare, VA Healthcare, 2013.

- Iram Rizvi, S. F., & Najam, N. (2014). Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 30(2), 256–260.  

- Jordan, Christian H.; Logel, Christine; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.; Wood, Joanne V.; Holmes, John G. Responsive Low Self-Esteem: Low Explicit Self-Esteem, Implicit Self-Esteem, and Reactions to Performance Outcomes. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology. Sep2013, Vol. 32 Issue 7, p703-732.

- Kashdan, Todd B.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Masten, Carrie L.; Pond Jr, Richard S.; Powell, Caitlin; Combs, David; Schurtz, David R.; Farmer, Antonina S. Who Is Most Vulnerable to Social Rejection? The Toxic Combination of Low Self-Esteem and Lack of Negative Emotion Differentiation on Neural Responses to Rejection. PLoS ONE. Mar2014, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p1-8.

- Lee, Catherine; Dickson, Daniel A.; Conley, Colleen S.; Holmbeck, Grayson N. A Closer Look at Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support, and Coping Strategy: A Prospective Study of Depressive Symptomatology Across the Transition to College. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology. Jun2014, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p560-585.

- McKay, Matthew, Ph.D. & Fanning, Patrick.;  "Self-Esteem."  New Harbinger Publications.  Oakland, CA.  1987.

- McKay, Matthew, Ph.D. & Fanning, Patrick.;  "Self-Esteem, Third Edition."  New Harbinger Publications.  Oakland, CA.  2000.

- Mills, L., & Daniluk, J. (2002). Her body speaks: the experience of dance therapy for women survivors of sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1).

- Moran, P., Bifulco, A., Ball, C., Jacobs, C., & Benaim, K. (2002). Exploring psychological abuse in childhood: developing a new interview scale. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 66(3).

- Newman, Tony. Promoting Resilience: A Review of Effective Strategies for Child Care Services. Centre for Evidence-Based Social Services, University of Exeter. 2002.

- Peurifoy, Reneau Z.;  "Anxiety, Phobias, and Panic."  Warner Books.  New York, NY.  1995.

- Powell, K. (2004). Developmental psychology of adolescent girls: conflicts and identity issues. Education, 125(1).

- Robinson, Tracy L., Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, Jul2000, Vol. 28, Issue 3

- Rubin, Theodore I., M.D.; "Compassion and Self-Hate: An Alternative to Despair.  Ballantine Books.  New York, NY.  1975.

- Sharma, Shraddha; Agarwala, Surila. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression. Psychological Thought. 2013, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p117-123.

- Thompson, M, Kngree, J, & Desai, S. (2004). Gender differences in long-term health consequences of physical abuse of children: data from a nationally representative survey. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4).

-Waite, Polly; McManus, Freda; Shafran, Roz, Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem: A preliminary randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting.Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry. Dec2012, Vol. 53 Issue 4, p1049-1057. 9p.

Appendix:
Client Reproducible Worksheets

A Guide to Assessment
Review CD Track 1 for more information on this technique.
Therapist reviews and utilizes the following procedures to assess client’s level of self esteem.
1.  Assess pathological practices.
2.  Assess ownership of self-critical behaviors.
3.  Assess the client’s purposes.
4.  Assess problematic situations.
5.  Assess historical influences. 

Clouding the Critic
Review CD Track 5 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to cloud the critic.
1.  Agree in part.       2.  Agree in principle.      3.  Agree in probability.

The Howitzer Mantras
Review CD Track 7 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to overcome the habit of self criticism.
1.  Choose a mantra.  Some mantras may include This is poison.  Stop it!," "These are lies my father told me," "Stop this shit!."  "Shut up!,"  "Screw you!,"  "Get off my back!,"  and, "Stop this garbage!"
2.  You might consider putting a rubber band around your wrist and snap it while subvocalizing your mantra. ‘Stop this garbage!’  you might scream internally and simultaneously snapp the rubber band.  By snapping the rubber band, you are emphasizing your stop commands and making successful thought interruption more likely.  The sharp stinging sensation breaks the chain of negative cognition and acts as a punisher so that the critic is less likely to attack in the near future.  The important thing is to catch the critic just as he starts, before he is allowed to do much damage.  If you snap the rubber band and internally scream your mantra whenever you hear the critic’s voice, the frequency of the critic’s attacks will greatly diminish.

Overcoming Feelings of Powerlessness
Review CD Track 8 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to overcome feelings of powerlessness.
1.  The first step is to recognize your emotions.  An emotion is your reaction to a situation.  While it may not always seem like it, your reaction is under your control. When you say, "My critic makes me feel worthless," you are mentally giving your self critic power over your reaction.  The critic doesn’t make you powerless.  Without conscious thought, you chose to become powerless.  That awareness is the first step in regaining control over the situation.
2.  The next step is being consistent and organized.  Try not to let your emotions get in the way of your response, whether it be clouding, probing, or the howitzer mantra.  Then get organized.  Keep track of each criticism and how you responded to it.  Note how you felt afterwards and the changes you notice.  Also, include a calendar of ‘things to do.
3.  The third step in overcoming feelings of powerlessness is not forgetting the rest of your life.  Emotionally at times it feels like you don’t have control over aspects of your life.  When you feel bounced and battered, it is important to acknowledge those parts of your life self criticism has not touched.  Focus on your accomplishments in life, both in the past and currently.  Work to keep balance in your life in this way and not let self criticism take control of your life again.
4.  Finally, accentuate the positives. 

Affirming Self Worth
Review CD Track 10 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to affirm self worth.
1.  Eliminate the idea of self worth.
2.  Unrestrict the idea to global self worth.
3.  Acknowledge your own personal worth by recalling a past incident where you felt worthy.
4.  Gain a compassionate perspective in which everyone’s worth is equal.

Client Insulation
Review CD Track 11 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to insulate themselves from external degradation.
1.  Repeat to yourself a picture of reality in which your condition is a result of your place in the world.  Remember that no matter who occupies that place, such a condition would exist for them as well. 
2.  Remember also that you are as perfect as possible.  It is those around you who do not accept you the way you are that lead you to think negatively about yourself.

Self-Evaluating
Review CD Track 12 for more information on this technique.
Client places a check mark next to the statements that best describe their feelings about the sexual abuse:
            I feel different from other people because of the abuse.
            My body is damaged.
            I feel guilty about what happened.
            I’m filled with anger.
            I’m afraid a lot of the time.
            I don’t enjoy things the way I used to.
            My future looks awful.
            I don’t think things are ever going to get better.
            I’m not eating or sleeping the way I did before the abuse.
            I don’t like to be around people, and I stay by myself a lot.
            I don’t know what I feel about the person who abused me.
            I’m tense or worried most of the time.
            I feel lousy about myself.
            I feel confused about how sex should be for me now.
            I blame myself for what happened.
            My moods change all the time.
            I can’t control much of anything now.
            I can’t trust very many people now.
            The molestation doesn’t affect me much.
            I have to be on the alert all the time now.
            I don’t see friends much anymore.
            I feel terrified of certain things.
            My eating patterns are all messed up.
            I think I would be better off dead.
            I think about dying.
            I’ve tried to hurt myself since the abuse.
            I can’t seem to get along with other kids anymore.
            I want to do sexual things with other kids.
            I get into fights or blow up a lot at other people.
            I don’t want to do what adults tell me to do.
            I’m having a lot of trouble sleeping well at night.
            I feel like running away from home.
            I feel "spacey" or in another world a lot of the time.
            I feel sick often.
            Things have gone downhill for me at school.
            I use drugs or alcohol to avoid thinking and feeling.

"Self-Evaluating Part II"
Review CD Track 12 for more information on this technique.
Client answers the following questions to help him become aware of the effects his abuse is having on his development:

  1. How do you think the abuse affects your life now?
  2. What do you think your life will be like in ten years?
  3. If the molestation had not been reported, what would your life be like now?
  4. List three of your best qualities or strengths.
  5. List three things about yourself that you sincerely want to change.
  6. Do you think there is any way to tell if a person is a molester?  I so, please explain.
  7. If you had three wishes, what would they be?
  8. How has being molested affected your feelings toward your mother?
  9. How has being molested affected your feelings toward your father?
  10. List three goals for yourself (other than in therapy) for the next six months.
  11. List three goals for yourself in this group.
  12. If you could say anything to the person or people who molested you (and be completely safe without any possible consequences), what would you say?
  13. Have you had recurrent, intrusive memories of what happened?  When?  How often?
  14. Why do you think that the abuse happened?
  15. Rate your overall trust level right now from 1 (no trust at all in family and friends) to 10 (complete trust in family and friends).
  16. Is there anything about the molestation that you have not discussed with anyone?  If so, how can we help you feel safe enough to talk about it now?

Best Case Scenario
Review CD Track 13 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to get through a depressive state and or ease anxiety.
1.  Think about the best possible outcome to this situation and write it out on a scrap of paper.
2.  Put this scenario in a place she could easily see it. 
3.  Read the scenario whenever you need to feel motivated.

Encouraging Commitment
Review CD Track 14 for more information on this technique.
Client reviews and utilizes the following procedures to commit to change.
1.  Devise a slogan to remind yourself of a perspective on personal efforts that frames them in a more manageable and less overwhelming way. 
2.  Considerations for devising a slogan may include tailoring the specific language, degree of sentimentality, and favored images or metaphors. 
3.  A statement may also be memorized or it may be written on a small card and kept in your wallet or purse for easy access.  This statement may be recited each morning, evening, or on any other schedule found to be helpful.  It should never be read passively, but always in a spirit of reaffirmation and rededication to its content.

 
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