On the last track, we discussed facilitated communication
and its possible misuse with autistic children and allegations of sexual abuse.
this track... we will examine using dream interpretation and sleep paralysis as
a mode of recovering repressed memories of trauma and ethical issues.
The Ambiguity of Dream Interpretation
For thousand of years, people have
been trying to find meaning through interpretation of their dreams. However, over
the centuries, the symbols have changed dramatically. For instance, the Egyptians
put symbolic authority into such things as, "If a he-goat couples with her,
she will die promptly." In the second century, Artemidorus interpreted a
foot as a slave and a head indicated a father. Much later, as you know, Freud
gave even more weight to dreams when examining them for sexual messages and sexual
For example, a skyscraper represented a penis. The dilemma, of course,
in dream interpretation is that there is little known about dreams at all. Even
renowned dream researchers, who awake clients and ask them what they were experiencing
as their REM indicated an active dream state, hardly know how the mind uses dreams.
Implantation of Sexual Abuse Dreams
Today, modern trauma therapists may
ask their clients to keep an eye out for any dreams that could be interpreted
as a sexual abuse memory trying to surface. Not surprisingly, soon after such
advice, the client receives such a dream. For example, Ann, age 34, had this to
tell to her therapist, "Oh, my god! It's all true! In my dream last night,
my Dad and uncle were taking turns having sex with me. And I was just a little
However, there is evidence that may suggest that this kind of interpretation
is much like hypnotism, in which the stress of the possibility of abuse implanted
in the mind of the client will occupy their dreams. Calvin Hall, author of The
Meaning of Dreams, states "It has been fairly well-established that some
aspects of the dream are usually connected with events of the previous day or
A Scenario to Consider
A client is
told in therapy that she might be a survivor of sexual abuse. She decides to read
up on abuse itself. She rents out descriptive literature about abuse and every
day, her thoughts are consumed with images. Soon, her entire day is devoted to
thinking about incest. That night, she has an incestuous dream. Her fears are
suddenly realized as her therapist had told her to be aware of any dreams that
might indicate childhood abuse.
However, if what Hall stated about dreams is true,
than her salacious, sensual, dream is most likely the result of her obsession
over incest, not the reality of the abuse. This is known as the "response
expectancy theory" and Kirsch explains how "when we expect to feel anxious,
relaxed, joyful, or depressed, our expectations tend to produce these feelings."
creates the ethical dilemma of misinterpretation of data Section 06 of the American
Psychological Association Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
states "When interpreting assessment results, including automated interpretations,
psychologists take into account the purpose of the assessment as well as the various
test factors, test-taking abilities, and other characteristics of the person being
assessed, such as situational, personal, linguistic, and cultural differences,
that might affect psychologists' judgments or reduce the accuracy of their interpretations.
They indicate any significant limitations of their interpretations." When
a client has undergone external influence from literature or suggestions from
other therapists, interpretations of their dream might be tainted.
Clients' Edit their Testimonies
In addition to "response expectancy",
clients may purposefully edit their dream reports to match what they believe the
therapist wants to hear. Jerome Frank, author of Persuasion and Healing, notes
that clients routinely give their therapists the dreams they feel their therapists
He states, "The dream the therapist hears is, of course, not necessarily
the one the client dreamed since considerable time has elapsed between the dream
and its report. One study compared dreams reported immediately upon awakening with the versions unfolded before a psychiatrist in a subsequent interview. Any
material the patient anticipated would not be approved of by the therapist was
Obviously, if the dream is not being reported accurately,
accurate interpretations cannot be produced. This makes the method of dream interpretation
not only a difficult and unreliable one, but needless to say an ethical dilemma.
#4 Sleep Paralysis
Another form of dream interpretation
is sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis typically takes place between sleeping and
waking. During sleep paralysis, clients are known to have striking visions, and
some of these are interpreted as sexual abuse memories.
The process follows as
1. First, a hallucination always occurs just before or after falling asleep;
2. Second the hallucinator is paralyzed or has difficulty moving;
3. Third the
hallucination is usually bizarre;
4. Finally, the hallucinator is unalterably
convinced of the reality of the entire event.
content of the vision is somehow related to the hallucinator's current concerns.
Like hypnosis and dream interpretation, sleep paralysis is not a proper vehicle
for recovering repressed memories as the client has been too much pervaded by
Any memory at all that might have been a real account of abuse
may have been overwhelmed by false memories unknowingly implanted by the therapist.
As a result, the treatment may not be focused on the true and real events, but
on the false memories, consequentially mistreating the client.
this track... we examined using dream interpretation and sleep paralysis as a mode
of recovering repressed memories and ethical considerations.
the next track, we will examine the issues of flashbacks and bodily reactions
to supposed repressed memories.
A client suspects that she might have been the survivor of childhood
sexual abuse. After weeks of research, she has an incestuous dream and comes to
the conclusion that her theories were correct. What is this client suffering from?
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