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School Shootings: Ethical & Confidentiality Boundary Issues
10 CEUs School Shootings: Ethical & Confidentiality Boundary Issues

CEU Answer Booklet
Psychologist CEs, Counselor CEUs, Social Worker CEUs, MFT CEUs | School Shootings CEU Courses

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Audio Transcript Questions The answer to Question 1 is found in Track 1 of the Course Content. The Answer to Question 2 is found in Track 2 of the Course Content… and so on. Select correct answer from below. Place letter on the blank line before the corresponding question. Do not add any spaces.
Important Note! Numbers below are links to that Section. If you close your browser (i.e. Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, etc..) your answers will not be retained. So write them down for future work sessions.

Questions:
1. What are the six steps in the Action technique regarding fact based risk inquiry under the Tarasoff decision?
2. What are the first five of nine explanations of school shootings?
3. What are the Three parts in the three-Part message technique?
4. What are four aspects of how structural secrecy may decrease the likelihood that school shooters will be identified early?
5. What are five aspects of weak or mixed signals that can interfere with the ability to identify children at risk within the school system?
6. What are six cultural scripts that influence a shooter’s decision to commit a violent act?
7. What are three factors that may prevent children from reporting threats from another student to adults?
8. What are four stages of early community recovery from a school shooting tragedy?
9. What are three conflicts that impact early community recovery following a school shooting?
10. What are the first three elements in the five factor model for the origin of a rampage school shooting?
11. According to Newman, what is the role of gun availability in rampage school shootings?
12. What are four steps than can be used to help prevent school shootings?
13. What are four steps that can help encourage students to come forward about threats?
14. What are J. Kelley’s four stages of a hostage situation?
Answers:
A.  Three conflicts are, getting stuck vs moving on, who owns the problem, and who are the ‘real’ victims.
B.  Three factors are violent language and the presumption of innocence, the adolescent code, and perceptual frames.
C.  These four steps are, adjusting the radar, school resource officers, leavening social capital and tweaking adolescent culture, and a zero tolerance policy.
D. The six steps are attitudes that support or facilitate violence, capacity, thresholds crossed, intent, other’s reactions, and non-compliance with risk reduction interventions.
E.  Six scripts are, changing social status through performance,
independence from adults, living with it, running away or suicide, violent fantasies, and threats.
F.  The initial hostage taking stage, the crisis stage, the accommodation stage, and the surrender stage
G.  Four stages are closing ranks, cracks in the foundation, healing at different speeds, and the impact on shooter’s families.
H. Three parts are: 1. make a concrete, verifiable statement about the behavior you want changed; 2. state how you feel using ‘I’ statements; 3. make a simple statement of fact the adolescent can verify.
I.  Four steps are ensure confidentiality, direct contact between parents and teachers, educational films, and decisive action.
J.  Five aspects are, masters of disguise, fragmentation, ‘just laugh it off’, perceived overreactions, and the perception that teachers cannot do anything.
K.  These four aspects are privacy, the clean slate, institutional memory loss, and the counselor-student confidentiality boundary.
L.  The first three of five elements are the perception of marginalization, psychosocial problems, and cultural scripts supporting violence.
M.  The first five of nine explanations are, mental illness, ‘he just snapped’, family problems, bullying, and peer support.
N.  Guns are not a direct cause of school shooting, but they are causally related.  Without gun availability, a rampage school shooting could clearly not occur.

Course Content Manual Questions The Answer to Question 15 is found in Section 15 of the Course Content… and so on. Select correct answer from below. Place letter on the blank line before the corresponding question.
Important Note! Numbers below are links to that Section. If you close your browser (i.e. Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, etc..) your answers will not be retained. So write them down for future work sessions.

Questions:
15. What is the legal consensus on the definition of a “true threat”?
16. According to Bailey, what are the constitutional law issues involved in using profiles to prevent school violence?
17. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, what are five effective strategies that have been used to reduce youth violence?
18. What are the four guiding principles for structured professional judgment in violence risk assessment?
19. What are the ten historical items included in the SAVRY for adolescent violence risk assessment?
20. According to Bender, what are five common factors among rampage school shooters?
21. According to the U.S. Department of Education, what are three explanations for why rampage school shooters are usually male?
22. According to Arrendondo, what are three guidelines to helping students distinguish a threat that should be reported to adults?
23. According to Fast, what four negative experiences are sudden death survivors more prone to?
24. According to Furman, how does the sudden death of a child create a particularly intense form of grief?
25. In what way can grief workers help survivors of sudden death reconceptualize the world in a meaningful way?
26. According to Sewell, what is one problem with using the inappropriate use of firearms as a predictor for student violence?
Answers:
A.  Inappropriately using a firearm can itself be considered violent behavior. Thus, it might be logically (and practically) inappropriate to consider violence as an early warning sign for violence. Violent acts, even those at a low level, merit intervention because they are violent, not merely because they are indicators that higher level violence is more probable.
B The parent mourns the loss of the child as well as the loss of a part of his or her self, since love for the child includes a narcissistic component.
C.  Three explanations are, 1. school is often a harsh environment for boys, 2. there is a pervasive lack of male role models in schools, particularly at lower grade levels; 3. in the early years, schools tend to emphasize skills in which girls generally excel (e.g., fine-motor control, sedate behavior, and high levels of language/communication skills).
D.  According to these courts, a "true threat" is a threat that a reasonable person in the same circumstances would find to be a serious and unambiguous expression of intent to do harm based on the language and context of the threat.
E.  According to Bailey, assigning students to alternative education programs based on a student's likeness to a profile could be seen as a deprivation of the right to equal educational opportunities and thus could pose serious constitutional questions.
F.  Ten historical items are: history of violence, history of nonviolent offending, early initiation of violence, past supervision/intervention failures, history of self-harm or suicide attempts, exposure to violence in the home, childhood history of maltreatment, parental/ caregiver criminality, early caregiver disruption, and poor school achievement.
G.  Sudden death survivors are more prone to experience a sense of unreality, of helplessness, heightened feelings of guilt about having failed to avert the disaster, and a strong need to blame someone for the crisis.
H.  1. There is no profile or single "type" of perpetrator of targeted violence; 2. there is a dynamic interaction among perpetrator, situation, target, and the setting; 3. there is a distinction between making a threat (expressing an intent to harm a target to the target or others) and posing a threat (engaging in behaviors that lead to a plan to harm); and 4. targeted violence is not random or spontaneous.
I.  Grief workers can help survivors of sudden death in this process by guiding them toward "grief projects" involving artistic expression or social activism.
J.  1. If another student emphasizes "killing" as opposed to a vague threat about getting back at someone; 2. if the person points out that they have access to a gun; 3. or if they seem to have a specific plan for how to kill someone.
K.  Five common factors are: emotional factors, alienation, prior warnings of violence, accessibility of guns, and a low or declining respect for life.
L.  Five effective strategies included skills training, behavior monitoring and reinforcement, cooperative learning, bullying prevention programs, and parent education programs.


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