Intensive family competence training
Universal family interventions
Less intensive strategies involved providing families with "homework". The Slick Tracy Home Team program was developed for late primary school and involved a set of activity books completed as homework tasks requiring parental assistance. In the context of broader community mobilisation efforts, delivery of the program was associated with increased communication regarding alcohol use, lower initiation of youth smoking, and less regular youth alcohol use (Perry et al. 1993).
Much of the research examining parent intervention focuses on efforts to prevent escalation or persistence in problem behaviours. One of the more intensive interventions used social learning principles to develop a training curriculum for parents. Parents targeted for this intervention had adolescent children younger than 16 years who had at least two previous convictions. Evaluation of this small trial demonstrated faster reductions in offending and reduced reliance on incarceration, compared with standard juvenile justice contact (Bank et al. 1991). Bank et al. also reported that an average of 44 hours of professional contact yielded savings estimated in excess of $US100,000 over three years.
Using a similar strategy within an early-intervention framework, Dishion and Andrews (1995) evaluated a 12-week parenting skills program aimed at families where youth had exhibited behavioural problems as children. Exposure to this parent group intervention reduced youth initiation to tobacco use one year later. Reduced parent-adolescent conflict was associated with these positive changes. In a small trial of an interactive, computerised parent education program that presents options for potential parent responses to common dilemmas faced in parenting adolescents, exposure to the package improved effective parenting responses (Kacir and Gordon 1997).
An Australian program was designed to provide a cost-effective method of assistance to parents of a substance-abusing adolescent. Blyth et al. (2000) developed an eight-week, professionally led group intervention. High rates (87 per cent) of depression among participating parents at pre-test reduced to 24 per cent after eight weeks, and further improvements were reported for parental mental health, parental satisfaction and assertive parenting behaviours (Toumbourou et al. 2001a).
Interventions targeting all parents
Toumbourou and Gregg (2001) reported an evaluation of an Australian program, Parenting Adolescents a Creative Experience (PACE), for parents of early adolescents. Designed as a universal intervention, facilitated groups based on an adult learning model used a curriculum that included adolescent communication, conflict resolution, and adolescent development (Jenkin and Bretherton 1994). Evaluation investigated the impact of seven-week PACE groups on a national sample of 3000 parents and Year 8 adolescents. Although only around 10 per cent of parents were successfully recruited into PACE groups, pre-and post-intervention findings demonstrated that benefits extended more broadly across families in the schools where PACE was offered. Parents and adolescents reported a reduction in family conflict. Adolescents reported increased maternal care, less delinquency, and less substance use (the odds of transition to alcohol use were halved).
The evaluation demonstrated that the parents recruited into the intervention were more frequently sole parents and their children reported higher rates of family conflict and substance use. Four months later at post-test, family conflict and youth substance use had reduced markedly in these families. Evaluation suggested that the substance use of respondents was influenced by their best-friend's substance use. Thus improvements in troubled family relationships appeared to have an impact on a wide group of families linked through peer-friend-ship networks (Toumbourou and Gregg 2001).
Teaching families to control peer influence
Integrating parent education within schools
At the next level, a four-hour "family check-up" offers a family assessment and motivational interviewing to encourage accurate appraisal of child risk behaviour and the use of appropriate parenting resources. For families where problems are evident, more extended parent training is offered.
Work is underway in Queensland schools to evaluate an adolescent version of the Triple-P Positive Parenting Program. Toumbourou et al. (2001b) are currently investigating the impact of an integrated multi-level secondary school intervention, Resilient Families, which incorporates communication training for students, an information night for parents, sequenced parent education groups, and brief family therapy. The project aims to further explore the assumption that community-based interventions can generate benefits beyond the minority of participants directly exposed to the intervention.
Although Australian governments have identified the reduction of adolescent health-compromising behaviours as a priority, significant investment in family-based adolescent health promotion has emerged only recently. There appear to be considerable opportunities to integrate family work in juvenile justice and drug abuse treatment settings. For example, Aos et al. (1998) reported the net economic benefit at around four dollars for each dollar invested in juvenile justice programs such as Functional Family Therapy. Further development of both targeted and whole-population family programs in late primary and early secondary school are promising prevention strategies, but further research will be required to quantify the benefits.
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