Sponsored by the HealthcareTrainingInstitute.org providing Quality Education since 1979
Add to Shopping Cart

Tobacco Dependency: Treatment Behavioral Solutions for Quitting
Tobacco Dependency continuing education MFT CEUs

Section 9
Counselor Impact on Smoking Cessation Strategy Effectiveness

CEU Question 9 | CEU Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | Addictions
Counselor CEUs, Psychologist CEs, Social Worker CEUs, MFT CEUs

There is much research on the smoking cessation process for adults. Self-help versus counselor-assisted approaches, behavioral versus cognitive strategies, and emotional versus environmental factors have been Smoking cessation Tobacco Dependency mft CEU courseexplored and analyzed in the counseling literature. Zelman, Brandon, Jorenby, and Baker (1992) compared the success of groups in four combinations of counselor-assisted methods, including (a) skills training, [b) support counseling, (c) nicotine gum, and (d) rapid smoking (see Appendix for italicized terms). All four groups reported high initial smoking cessation rates (84% average), with supportive counseling being more effective initially with smokers high in negative affect (emotional distress). Skills training was more helpful at first for those with low negative affect. Rapid smoking helped smokers who use cigarettes as positive reinforcement, whereas the nicotine gum helped those who smoke to alleviate withdrawal. Zelman et al. concluded that counselors should wait until high negative affect clients are past the withdrawal stage before introducing skills training. The 12 month follow-up showed a still respectable 28% to 40% success rate. Combinations of nicotine gum with skills training and nicotine gum with support counseling yielded the highest success rates of 40% and 39%, respectively.

Glasgow, Schafer, and O'Neill (1981) assessed whether it is more effective to use self-help methods or to stop smoking with the assistance of a counselor. The results were mixed. When participants were given a 90- or 154-page book to read to help them stop smoking, most did not stop smoking or even read the materials unless they were also seeing a counselor. Participants were most successful at quitting; however, when given a 20-page, easy-to-read booklet and with no counselor assistance. This result contrasted with many other studies in this review, which indicated that counselor assistance increased success rates.

Orleans et al. (1991) also evaluated the benefits of counselor-assisted smoking cessation attempts, but the assistance was conducted by telephone. Counselor contact boosted quit rates in this study by 50%, causing participants to more closely follow steps outlined in various self-help guides they were given. Successful quitters had more social support, were highly motivated to quit, and had moderate self-efficacy ratings. Quitters used more pre-quitting strategies but not more quitting methods. In fact, Orleans et al. found that those using more than one of the self-help stop-smoking guides were less likely to successfully stop smoking.

Zhu, Tedeschi, Anderson, and Pierce (1996) compared results of a telephone counseling protocol with those of a self-help group. These researchers found many benefits from telephone counseling compared with persuading participants to use a stop-smoking group program. The anonymous nature of a phone call as well as the individualized approach encouraged participants to be more open and to have more specific needs met. Counselors initiated phone calls, so they did not have to wait for participants to call or worry about dropouts. The focus of the counseling was on boosting motivation and self-efficacy as well as developing coping skills. The counselor would assess the smoker's current smoking behavior and history of quitting and then assist him or her in developing a plan to stop smoking. Zhu et al. discovered that participants receiving the most counselor contact had the highest rates of success, indicating a clear "dose-response" relationship; that is, increased application of the dose (counselor contact) was strongly and positively correlated with the response (participants' smoking cessation). At 12 months, participants using self-help materials experienced a 15% success rate. Even one phone call from a counselor boosted that rate to 20%. Of those receiving multiple calls, 27% were nonsmokers at 1-year postcessation. (Percentages are rounded.)

Effective strategies for adult cessation have been well documented. Having strong motivation (Glasgow, Klesges, Mizes, & Pechacek, 1985), social support (Mermelstein, Cohen, Lichtenstein, Baer, & Kamarck, 1986; Orleans et al., 1991), and high-perceived self-efficacy (Condiotte & Lichtenstein, 1981; Orleans et al., 1991; Zhu et al., 1996) are factors commonly associated with successful adult smoking cessation. Adults are more likely to choose cognitive strategies and find them easier to use than behavioral strategies (Glasgow et al., 1985). Contact with a counselor improves chances of success, even when contact is brief (Condiotte & Lichtenstein, 1981; Glasgow et al., 1981; Orleans et al., 1991) and when the counselor has little knowledge of how to help someone stop smoking (Jenks, Schwartz, & Dubitzky, 1969).

Adults can benefit from smoking cessation strategies that address the issues that constitute their reasons for smoking. Support from people in a smoker's life, including that of a counselor, can help a smoker develop and sustain the motivation and confidence to successfully stop smoking.
- Singleton, Mary G and Mark Pope; A Comparison of Successful Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults and Adolescents; Journal of Counseling & Development; Fall 2000; Vol. 78 Issue 4
The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.

Personal Reflection Exercise #2
The preceding section contained information about counselor impact on smoking cessation strategy effectiveness.  Write three case study examples regarding how you might use the content of this section in your practice.

Online Continuing Education QUESTION 9
According to Singleton, what are three important factors associated with successful adult smoking cessation? Record the letter of the correct answer the CEU Answer Booklet

 

CEU Answer Booklet for this course | Addictions
Forward to Section 10
Back to Section 8
Table of Contents
Top

The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.
Report finds fentanyl leading cause of overdose deaths, doubling annually - December 12, 2018
Fentanyl is still king of killers when it comes to drug overdoses in the United States, but another drug is combined with it in 70 percent of deadly overdoses. U.S. federal data show that overdose deaths caused by fentanyl have almost doubled every year from 2013 to 2016 and that fentanyl combined – knowingly or ...
The post Report finds fentanyl leading cause of overdose deaths, doubling annually appeared first on Addictions.
DEA agent charged with helping cartel in Chicago - December 11, 2018
Fernando Gomez, a former Evanston, Ill., cop and current agent for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, was arrested at the DEA office where he worked on Tuesday morning, charged with conspiracy to smuggle both guns and drugs. Gomez, age 41, deliberately joined the DEA from the Evanston police force to work clandestinely with a Puerto ...
The post DEA agent charged with helping cartel in Chicago appeared first on Addictions.
Investigators look at price fixing for 300 generic drugs - December 10, 2018
Investigators following up on a lawsuit that began in 2016 are now looking into allegations that 16 pharmaceutical companies conspired to fix the prices of generic drugs. The brouhaha started with an antitrust lawsuit two years ago filed by several U.S. states, including Connecticut over just two drugs. Allegations in the expanding investigation include the ...
The post Investigators look at price fixing for 300 generic drugs appeared first on Addictions.
RAND Study recommends implementing prescription heroin sites in U.S. - December 06, 2018
Santa Monica think-tank Rand Corp. published a study this week saying that supervised heroin injection sites where addicts shoot up under supervision and the use of heroin in treatment could help stem the tide of opioid addiction and overdoses in the United States. So-called HAT, or “heroin-assisted treatment,” and carefully supervised sites similar to those ...
The post RAND Study recommends implementing prescription heroin sites in U.S. appeared first on Addictions.
Over 84 Italian mob members arrested in European cocaine bust - December 06, 2018
Police in four different European countries arrested 84 people this week in a coordinated crackdown on the Italian mafia, which has been involved in global cocaine smuggling. Those arrested, authorities said, are tied to the ‘Ndrangheta mob, based in Calabria, in the toe of the Italian boot. Experts say it is a far more powerful ...
The post Over 84 Italian mob members arrested in European cocaine bust appeared first on Addictions.

CEU Continuing Education for
Counselor CEUs, Psychologist CEUs, Social Worker CEUs, MFT CEUs

 


OnlineCEUcredit.com Login


Forget your Password Reset it!