conditioning, studied by Pavlov, is concerned with stimuli which automatically
evoke responses. There are certain stimuli in your environment that cause reflex
responses, such as noise, electrical shock, light, and the taste of food. This
type of stimuli are referred to as respondent or unconditioned stimuli. Respondent
stimuli are frequently considered involuntary or automatic responses. These responses
are not under your control. (Reminder: Answers to all questions are to be transferred
to the Institute Manual, which is returned to us.)
Question #1: Give an example of an unconditioned or respondent stimuli or Stimulus Generalization:
According to Skinner, a response, which is repeatedly reinforced in the presence
of a particular situation, is likely to be repeated in that situation again, where
the situation and stimuli often share common properties.
Generalization: Altering a person's response can influence other responses.
For example, if your client is praised for good grades in spelling, the frequency
of good grades in English and reading might also increase. So in other words,
reinforcement of a response increases the probability of increasing other responses
which are similar. Generalization is of central importance to behavior modification
applications. When a target behavior is changed and continues outside of the training
situation, the clinician has most generally accomplished his or her purpose.
behaviorsneed to be defined explicitly so they can actually be observed,
measured, and agreed upon. To be objective, target behaviors should be observable
characteristics of the behavior or of the environmental events.
specific terms: A description of an individual's behavior
in observable terms specifies what he says or does. Reference
to unobservable constructs, such as "ego impairment"
or "striving for masculinity," are insufficient to describe
a person's behavior in measurable terms.
#2: Place an "x" before the following statements
written in behaviorally specific terms
Mary took a box of cheese from the refrigerator.
Bill expressed his feelings of frustration at the baseball game.
John showed angry feelings toward his teacher this week.
Martha placed a dirty cup in the sink.