Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression (1979) has served as a heuristic model for understanding depressive disorders in several studies. Depression is described primarily as a disorder of cognition, resulting in impaired affect and behavior (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). The model explains how cognitive errors in interpersonal interactions lead an individual to view current life experiences primarily as negative, resulting in the development of the depressive syndrome. In addition, the model describes how applying idiosyncratic schemas to life circumstances maintains the depressive syndrome. Within this model, treatment of depression requires the modification of the client's cognitions. The treatment process is further facilitated by focusing on other components of the depressive syndrome (e.g., behavior). Treatments consistent with Beck's model of depression and its treatment have shown promise (Rehm, 1981; Kazdin 1990).
Social skills therapeutic programs are designed to alter maladaptive social/interpersonal behaviors as well as the inappropriate cognitive evaluations associated with social behavior. Appropriate social skills consist of: (1) the ability to organize cognitions and behaviors into an integrated course of action directed toward culturally acceptable social and/or interpersonal goals; and (2) the ability to continuously assess and modify goal-directed behavior to maximize the likelihood of reaching particular goals (Goldstein, 1981).
One specific social skills program, Structured Learning Therapy (SLT), presents a comprehensive treatment approach with adolescents (Goldstein, Spraffin, Gershaw, & Klein, 1980). SLT includes skill instruction, modeling, role playing, and performance appraisal. Goldstein (1981) defined his treatment as the planned systematic teaching of specific behaviors that help an individual function appropriately in interpersonal contexts. Along with behavior modification, the program strives to modify distorted perceptions about social interactions, as well as the individual's ability and potential. Research examining social skills treatments that contain procedures similar to SLT suggest that the treatment is effective for a variety of social/ interpersonal problems. For example, SLT's efficacy has been reported for treating: social isolation and social withdrawal (Jackibchuk & Smeriglio, 1976; La Grecca & Sanogrossi, 1980); unassertive behavior (Denney, 1975; La Fromboise & Rowe, 1983); and aggressive behavior (Camp, Blom, Herbert, & Van Doormeade, 1977; Huey & Rank, 1984; Goldstein, Apter, & Harotunian, 1984). In addition, social skills treatments have been reported to be equal in effectiveness to traditional psychotherapies in treating depression and hyperactivity (Hersen, Bellack, Himmelhoch, & Thase, 1984; Fleming & Thornton, 1980; Kazdin, Esveldt-Dawson, & Matson, 1983).
Finally SLT appears to be more readily employable for various groups, compared to traditional psychotherapies, and has helped improve the psychosocial functioning of both males and females of diverse ages and ethnic backgrounds (La Fromboise & Rowe, 1983; Hersen et al., 1984; Huey & Rank, 1984). Consequently, social skills treatment may be a useful therapy for clients who have difficulty in traditional psychotherapy (e.g., ethnic minorities and teenagers).
Eleven were African-American (6 males, 5 females), two were Hispanic (1 male, 1 female), and five were white (2 males, 3 females). There were 2 males and 4 females in the control group, and 7 males and 5 females in the treatment group.
Two multidimensional personality measures were also included. They were the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) (Wirt, Lachar, Klinedinst, & Seat, 1977) depression, withdrawal, and social skills subtests, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (Hathaway & McKinley, 1967; Hoffman & Butcher, 1975; Overall & Gomezmont, 1974; Hedlund, Won Chu, & Powell, 1975). The MMPI used adolescent norms reported by Colligan, Osborne, Swenson, & Offord (1983).
Treatment sessions followed the outline of SLT presented in Goldstein's Skillstreaming the Adolescent (1980). Treatment consisted of a discussion of the skill to be covered, instruction on use of the skill, and group leader modeling of the skill. The adolescents then role played the use of the skill in social interactions typical of their familial environment. All subjects role played each session, then received feedback from peers and group leaders. Subjects were also encouraged to practice the skill at home and/or in their community.
The control group participated in Art and Imagery exercises. They were also given the opportunity to express themselves through their creative work and to discuss their feelings.
Treatment and control groups did not differ significantly on any pretreatment measure. Additionally, males and females in the treatment group did not significantly differ on pretreatment measures. Thus, both groups began at a comparable level of functioning. In addition, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients reflect expected relationships among various categories of measures (i.e., high internal consistency and inverse relationships between pathological scales and self-esteem).
Treatment effects were analyzed in two phases. First, a series of t-tests was conducted on holistic clinical judgments of improvement and success. Second, a series of t-tests was conducted on self-esteem, and depression measures to evaluate their main effects of treatment, time, and gender.
Inter-rater reliability of the clinical judgments was determined by computing Pearson correlation coefficients between the two judges. Reliabilities exceeded r = .80 for the success and improvement ratings. The third rating, whether the subjects were in the treatment or control groups, was not reliably made by the judges, and therefore was not used in subsequent analyses.
The most experienced clinician's ratings were used as the criterion for holistic judgment. A significant between-group difference was found using success ratings that were based on subject profiles with information from all three assessment sessions (t = 3.02, p < .01). The treatment group was rated moderately successful (mean = 4) for the SLT group, and unsuccessful (mean = 1.6) for the control group. This significant difference suggests that score configurations of treatment subjects provide more evidence for change than do such configurations for control subjects.
A series of t-tests comparing gender means of the formal test data for each assessment session also revealed significant differences. Males were significantly less depressed than females on the FDI at post treatment (t = 2.30, df = 9, p < .04) and follow-up (t = 2.69, df = 8, p < .02). No significant gender difference were revealed for the treatment subjects on the SEI.
Examination of the within-treatment changes across assessment periods highlights the gender differences found for each assessment session. Female treatment subjects actually exhibited significantly higher depression, as measured by the FDI between the pre- and pest-treatment assessments (t = 2.80, df = 4, p < .05), while male treatment subjects exhibited significantly lower depression across assessments. On the CDI, males' depression level decreased between pre- and pest-treatment assessments (t = 2.44, df = 8, p < .02). These subjects (3 of 5) generally continued to function at a nondepressed level through the follow-up assessment period. Improvement, as measured by the FDI, appeared to be a more gradual process. The males' reduced level of depression is revealed by comparing pre-treatment and follow-up assessment scores (t = 1.91, df = 8, p < .05). On this measure, 5 of 6 male treatment subjects were functioning at a nondepressed level at the follow-up assessment. Male treatment subjects also improved significantly from pre- to pest-treatment assessment on general self-esteem (t = 2.42, df = 6, p < .05), and from post-treatment to follow-up assessments on social self-esteem (t = 3.83, df = 6, p < .01).
Results reveal differential clinical ratings and depression levels for male and female treatment subjects. The females' depression levels remained relatively unchanged, similar to the control group, whereas male subjects exhibited significant levels of depression following treatment. Males also exhibited improvement in some aspects of self-esteem.
Male adolescents appear to run a fairly structured and consistent developmental course. The major task for males during adolescence is to gain mastery of their physical body and to exhibit environmental control through external achievement (Al-Issa, 1982; Locksley & Douvan, 1979; Weiner, 1982). Males suffering from depressive disorders would be expected to have difficulty demonstrating social competence and/or self-mastery. Depressed males often appear either physically awkward or lacking in social/interpersonal skills.
Responses to this awkwardness by adults and peers usually consist of strong sanctions, punishment, and negative reinforcement. Modification of male behavior in the form of improved social judgment, interpersonal skills, and self-mastery leads to improved academic achievement and social status. Moderate improvement in male functioning will usually receive positive responses from both peers and adults.
Additionally, male social networks tend to be flexible, and based primarily on current functioning. Therefore, male adolescents can improve their social status as their interpersonal functioning improves.
Conversely, female adolescents run a less structured and more inconsistent developmental course. Their major task during adolescence is to develop interpersonal competence and to become comfortable with their physical appearance and sexual identity (Al-Issa, 1982; Locksley & Douvan, 1979; Macoby & Jacklin, 1974; Weiner, 1982; Weissman & Klerman, 1979). Depressed females would be expected to have difficulty during this maturational process, exhibiting excesses in their dress, grooming, and physical state (e.g., weight loss or gain). In addition, females may use sarcasm and flirtatious behavior as a way of communicating dissatisfaction and/or of obtaining desired goals.
Responses from peers and adults to the female's incompetence is variable. At times the adolescent's behavior is considered as attractive and thus permissible, whereas the same behavior in other settings may be viewed as inappropriate and thus undesirable. Consequently, the female does not always receive a consistent message about her behavior. Improved behavior of female adolescents also receives inconsistent feedback.
Adolescent females in general are expected to be competent interpersonally. Therefore, a female adolescent who had been depressed, upon achieving appropriate functioning, would receive only minimal attention for her accomplishment.
In addition, one potential consequence of SLT may be to elicit more assertive behavior. Participants often learn to self-evaluate according to an internal set of values and norms that take into account social demands and expectations. Assertive behavior is usually considered a positive characteristic for males; however, assertiveness in females is not consistently viewed as positive in western society.
Consequently, it is suggested here that for SLT to be an effective treatment, it must meet the different gender-related developmental needs of the adolescents. Males would thus be best helped by: (1) receiving guidance in developing competent social behavior and in evaluating their social environment; (2) having a safe environment to practice new social skills; (3) having a safe peer group in which to achieve social status; and (4) having a caring role model to encourage success.
Most adolescent females have more social knowledge than do their male peers. The primary benefits they may accrue from SLT include the ability to internalize an appropriate criterion for self-evaluation (i.e., one which allows them to strive for high goals while being comfortable with the possibility of failure). These potential benefits include: (1) receiving reinforcement and feedback from peers and group leaders; (2) developing a long-term perspective for goal attainment; (3) developing trust in peers and leaders; and (4) learning to work cooperatively rather than competitively with peers.
The results of this study suggest that SLT in its present format is able to meet these goals for males but not for females. Future research will seek to replicate these findings and also vary the length of treatment time to determine if this leads to improvement in females. Finally, single-gender treatment groups will be used to determine if the results are partially due to female subjects being less candid about problems and needs because of the presence of males in the treatment group.
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School police are a presence in many schools, particularly those in low-income neighborhoods where many students of color live. Marquisha Spencerasks whether they criminalize ordinary misbehavior.
Educators say students need to feel welcome at school to be successful, but some say they struggle to address barriers to belonging.
Dena Simmons, the director of education at the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, says teachers can create environments in which all students can thrive.
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The U.S. Department of Education has directed civil rights investigators to find ways to address transgender students' concerns of harassment and bullying while bypassing complaints about facilities.
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