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Treating Distracted & Impulsive ADD Children
10 CEUs Treating Distracted & Impulsive ADD Children

Section 24
Using Mnemonic Devices to Enhance Learning in ADD Students

Question 24 | Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | ADD CEU Courses
Psychologist CEs, Counselor CEUs, Social Worker CEUs, MFT CEUs

Collaborative interactions with teachers should focus on academic interventions to help the student develop skills needed for high school and postsecondary education. Related to academic intervention, simple butADD child ADD Treating Distracted & Impulsive counselor CEU effective strategies are needed. For example, the use of simple mnemonics strategies developed and researched for the past three decades are highly effective interventions that can be used in both regular and special education settings (Sealander, 1999), as well as in the home, to help students with attention deficit disorders negotiate and comprehend information in their textbooks. Mnemonic strategies are learning enhancements that may help the student with ADHD remember the steps or procedures for solving problems or obtaining new information by “chunking” (grouping) information. Several mnemonic strategies that can be used to help the student with ADHD are described as follows.

The mnemonic “HOW” (Archer & Gleason) can be used with students who have attention problems and other learning disabilities to improve the appearance of their written work by reminding them how a paper should look and to check important aspects of the paper:
H Headings to include name, date, subject, and page number if needed.
O Organization reminders such as starting on the left, going to the right, then top to bottom while paying attention to margins and spacing.
W Written neatly? (Students check for errors)

Ellis and Lenz introduced the mnemonic “RAP,” which allows students with comprehension difficulties to identify and store information contained in a paragraph. RAP cues the student to
R Read the paragraph.
A Ask yourself, what is the main idea and two details?
P Put the details and main ideas into your own words.

Another learning strategy developed by Ellis and Lenz is “CANDO.” By using the following cues, this mnemonic can help students with ADHD in retaining content information:
C Create a list of items to be learned.
A Ask yourself whether your list is complete.
N Note the main ideas and details by creating a map or tree diagram.
D Describe each component on your map or tree diagram and how they relate.
O Overlearn Main Points and build with Details.

“COPS” (Schumaker, Nolan, & Deshler) is an earlier mnemonic developed at the University of Kansas Research and Learning Center to help students remember to check their written work:
C Check for errors in capitalization.
O Observe overall appearance (spacing, legibility, indention of paragraphs, etc.).
P Punctuation check for commas, semicolons, ending punctuation.
S Spell check using a dictionary, teacher, or spell checker.

“TOWER” is another mnemonic suggested by Deschler and Putnam to provide structure for taking notes in class, writing thematic papers, or providing written answers on exams.
T Think about the content (use title, headings, details, graphs, tables, pictures, etc.)
O Order the topics, supplement with details.
W Write a rough draft.
E Error search using COPS.
R Revise and Rewrite.

Finally, “SLANT” is one of the earliest mnemonic strategies developed by researchers at the University of Kansas (Mercer & Mercer) to help students with attention difficulties and learning problems focus on classroom lectures.
S Sit up straight.
L Lean forward.
A Activate thinking and Ask questions.
N Name key information and Nod your head to validate the teacher/speaker.
T Track the teacher or speaker.
- Schwiebert, Valerie L, Karen A Sealander, and Jean L Dennison; Strategies for Counselors Working with High School Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Journal of Counseling & Development; Winter2002, Vol. 80 Issue 1, p3

Personal Reflection Exercise #10
The preceding section contained information about using mnemonic devices to enhance learning in ADD students.  Write three case study examples regarding how you might use the content of this section in your practice.

What are the steps in the “CAN DO” mnemonic? Record the letter of the correct answer the Answer Booklet.

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