Under what circumstances are women with breast and ovarian cancer more likely to die?
What is the benefit of support groups for cancer patients?
In Al-Ghazal et al.’s study, what were the differences in body image between women who immediately underwent reconstructive surgery compared to women who underwent delayed reconstruction?
According to Reaby, what were the differences in the decision-making styles of women who opted for reconstructive surgery and those who didn’t?
According to Spiegel & Cordova, what treatment technique was associated with reduced distress and longer survival?
What four benefits did Yalom suggest group psychotherapy offers that is not available in individual settings?
What is the ultimate goal of meaning-centered group psychotherapy with cancer patients?
According to Weisman, what are the four psychosocial stages that cancer patients experience?
According to Miller & Harvey, what is the Huxleyan danger of positive psychology?
According to Dobkin & Costa, what is the difference between supportive and structured psycho-education interventions in group psychotherapy?
According to Cunningham & Oreher, what did the negative fighting spirit finding lead Watson and colleagues to say?
A. (1) a sense of universality among otherwise isolated people who may feel shunned because of their illness, (2) a feeling of helping oneself by helping others, (3) hopefulness fostered by seeing how others have coped successfully with difficult issues, and (4) a general sense of belonging to a larger group.
B. There is the Huxleyan danger that a positive psychology, in its quest to focus on the more uplifting qualities of the human experience, will ignore those events that cause us to be "broken" and in need of a "mental cure."
C. If they are unmarried or isolated or say that they lack intimate friends. Or, if they had recently suffered a death in the family, divorce, or a financial crisis.
D. The negative fighting spirit finding led Watson and colleagues to say, with a seeming sigh of relief, that patients need not feel scared or guilty if they cannot maintain a fighting spirit, since it probably does not help them much anyway.
E. The approach encouraged a direct confrontation with fears of dying and death, and the expression of all emotions: fear, sadness, anger, joy, and others, in a supportive group setting.
F. Women who had undergone immediate reconstruction reported significantly superior body image scores than those who underwent delayed reconstruction.
G. Supportive interventions encourage patients to acknowledge their experiences and express their emotions with other patients, psycho-education interventions use cognitive and behavioural techniques to allow improvements in patients' adaptation to disease via learning coping skills and stress reduction techniques (e.g. relaxation training).
H. (a) the "existential plight" stage--a period of about 100 days beginning with the diagnosis and extending through primary treatment; (b) the "mitigation and accommodation" stage--when the patient's behavior is the psychosocial equivalent of having the disease, even during remission; (c) the "decline and deterioration" stage; and (d) the "preterminality and terminality" stage.
I. Support groups allow cancer patients to talk about their illness and treatment, to express and manage fears of isolation and death, and to receive empathy and advice from others going through the same experience
J. Most women electing not to have reconstructive surgery were classified as `sideliners' -- choosing the alternative that was the simplest to implement. These women made rapid, conflict-free decisions but were prone to regret at a later date. None of the reconstruction patients made their decision in this way, tending instead to demonstrate the `contented' pattern -- having a strong preference for reconstruction based on individual personal needs and showing little regret.
K. The ultimate goal is to help men and women with advanced cancer focus on what has been, and can still be, meaningful in their lives given their circumstances, and to further develop their ability to reframe their experience from that of dying to that of living despite the threat of dying.