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Postpartum Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment
Postpartum Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment

Section 28

CEU Test | Table of Contents
| Depression
Counselor CEUs, Social Worker CEUs, Psychologist CEs, MFT CEUs

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Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Abramowitz, J. S., Deacon, B. J., Olatunji, B. O., Wheaton, M. G., Berman, N. C., Losardo, D., Timpano, K. R., McGrath, P. B., Riemann, B. C., Adams, T., Björgvinsson, T., Storch, E. A., & Hale, L. R. (2010). Assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions: Development and evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 180–198.

Ayers, S., Radoš, S. N., & Balouch, S. (2015). Narratives of traumatic birth: Quality and changes over time. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 7(3), 234–242.

Beebe, B., Lachmann, F., Jaffe, J., Markese, S., Buck, K. A., Chen, H., Cohen, P., Feldstein, S., & Andrews, H. (2012). Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and 4-month mother–infant interaction. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 29(4), 383–407. 

Blackburne-Stover, G., Belenky, M. F., & Gilligan, C. (1982). Moral development and reconstructive memory: Recalling a decision to terminate an unplanned pregnancy. Developmental Psychology, 18(6), 862–870. 

Blum, L. D., Horenstein, A., Carper, M. M., Stange, J. P., Cohen, J. N., Doyle, A., & Smith, V. (2021). A new instrument to assess counterdependency, evaluated in the context of postpartum depression. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 38(1), 49–57.

Bouchard, G. (2012). Intergenerational transmission and transition to fatherhood: A mediated-moderation model of paternal engagement. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(5), 747–755. 

Braen, B. B. (1977). Review of Unplanned parenthood: The social consequences of teenage childbearing [Review of the book Unplanned parenthood: The social consequences of teenage childbearing, by F. F. Furstenberg, JR]. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 47(4), 727–728.

Brandão, T., Brites, R., Pires, M., Hipólito, J., & Nunes, O. (2019). Anxiety, depression, dyadic adjustment, and attachment to the fetus in pregnancy: Actor–partner interdependence mediation analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(3), 294–303.

Cao, H., Zhou, N., Leerkes, E. M., & Su, J. (2021). The etiology of maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: Childhood emotional maltreatment, couple relationship satisfaction, and genes. Journal of Family Psychology, 35(1), 44–56.

Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Kerns, C. E., Miguel, E., Coxe, S., Elkins, R. M., Carpenter, A. L., Cornacchio, D., Cooper-Vince, C. E., DeSerisy, M., Chou, T., Sanchez, A. L., Khanna, M., Franklin, M. E., Garcia, A. M., & Freeman, J. B. (2017). Internet-delivered, family-based treatment for early-onset OCD: A pilot randomized trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(2), 178–186. 

Conway, C. C., Rutter, L. A., & Brown, T. A. (2016). Chronic environmental stress and the temporal course of depression and panic disorder: A trait-state-occasion modeling approach. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 53–63.

Cordes, K., Smith-Nielsen, J., Tharner, A., Katznelson, H., Steele, H., & Væver, M. (2017). Reflective functioning in postpartum depressed women with and without comorbid personality disorder. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 34(4), 414–421.

Culbert, K. M., Breedlove, S. M., Sisk, C. L., Keel, P. K., Neale, M. C., Boker, S. M., Burt, S. A., & Klump, K. L. (2015). Age differences in prenatal testosterone’s protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: Developmental windows of expression? Behavioral Neuroscience, 129(1), 18–36. 

Davenport, Y. B., & Adland, M. L. (1982). Postpartum psychoses in female and male bipolar manic-depressive patients. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(2), 288–297.

David, H. P., & Matejcek, Z. (2004). Unwanted pregnancies: Reply. American Psychologist, 59(3), 184. 

Davis, J. L., & Manago, B. (2016). Motherhood and associative moral stigma: The moral double bind. Stigma and Health, 1(2), 72–86. 

Dellagiulia, A., Lionetti, F., Pastore, M., Linnea, K., Hasse, K., & Huizink, A. C. (2020). The Pregnancy Anxiety Questionnaire Revised-2: A contribution to its validation. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 36(5), 787–795.

Don, B. P., & Mickelson, K. D. (2012). Paternal postpartum depression: The role of maternal postpartum depression, spousal support, and relationship satisfaction. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 1(4), 323–334.

Dworkin, E. R., Zambrano-Vazquez, L., Cunningham, S. R., Pittenger, S. L., Schumacher, J. A., Stasiewicz, P. R., & Coffey, S. F. (2017). Treating PTSD in pregnant and postpartum rural women with substance use disorders. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 41(2), 136–151.

Fredriksen, E., von Soest, T., Smith, L., & Moe, V. (2017). Patterns of pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms: Latent class trajectories and predictors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(2), 173–183.

Gilkes, M., Perich, T., & Meade, T. (2019). Predictors of self-stigma in bipolar disorder: Depression, mania, and perceived cognitive function. Stigma and Health, 4(3), 330–336.

Handelzalts, J. E., Hairston, I. S., Muzik, M., Matatyahu Tahar, A., & Levy, S. (2019). A paradoxical role of childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the association between personality factors and mother–infant bonding: A cross-sectional study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. Advance online publication.

Hollifield, J., & Hobdy, J. (1990). The course of pregnancy complicated by bulimia. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(2), 249–255.

Incollingo Rodriguez, A. C., Tomiyama, A. J., Guardino, C. M., & Dunkel Schetter, C. (2019). Association of weight discrimination during pregnancy and postpartum with maternal postpartum health. Health Psychology, 38(3), 226–237.

Istvan, J. (1986). Stress, anxiety, and birth outcomes: A critical review of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), 331–348.

Jaffe, J. (2017). Reproductive trauma: Psychotherapy for pregnancy loss and infertility clients from a reproductive story perspective. Psychotherapy, 54(4), 380–385.

Jensen, J. F., & Rauer, A. J. (2015). Marriage work in older couples: Disclosure of marital problems to spouses and friends over time. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(5), 732–743. 

Kings, C. A., Knight, T., Ryan, D., & Macdonald, J. A. (2017). The “sensory deprivation tank”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of men’s expectations of first-time fatherhood. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 18(2), 112–122. 

Kita, S., Hayashi, M., Umeshita, K., Tobe, H., Uehara, N., Matsunaga, M., & Kamibeppu, K. (2020). Intimate partner violence and maternal child abuse: The mediating effects of mothers’ postnatal depression, mother-to-infant bonding failure, and hostile attributions to children’s behaviors. Psychology of Violence, 10(3), 279–289. 

Kudinova, A. Y., Woody, M. L., James, K. M., Burkhouse, K. L., Feurer, C., Foster, C. E., & Gibb, B. E. (2019). Maternal major depression and synchrony of facial affect during mother-child interactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 128(4), 284–294. 

Lafarge, C., Usher, L., Mitchell, K., & Fox, P. (2020). The role of rumination in adjusting to termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: Rumination as a predictor and mediator of posttraumatic growth. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(1), 101–109.

Lavner, J. A., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2014). Relationship problems over the early years of marriage: Stability or change? Journal of Family Psychology, 28(6), 979–985.

Leathers, S. J., & Kelley, M. A. (2000). Unintended pregnancy and depressive symptoms among first-time mothers and fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(4), 523–531.

Markin, R. D. (2018). “Ghosts” in the womb: A mentalizing approach to understanding and treating prenatal attachment disturbances during pregnancies after loss. Psychotherapy, 55(3), 275–288. 

Markin, R. D., & McCarthy, K. S. (2020). The process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy for pregnancy after loss: A case study analysis. Psychotherapy, 57(2), 273–288.

McCloskey, R. J. (2021). Postpartum physical health: The role of mothers’ adverse childhood experiences and material hardship. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.

Mitchell, A. M., Porter, K., & Christian, L. M. (2018). Examination of the role of obesity in the association between childhood trauma and inflammation during pregnancy. Health Psychology, 37(2), 114–124. 

Mogg, K., Wilson, K. A., Hayward, C., Cunning, D., & Bradley, B. P. (2012). Attentional biases for threat in at-risk daughters and mothers with lifetime panic disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(4), 852–862. 

Nakić Radoš, S., Matijaš, M., Kuhar, L., Anđelinović, M., & Ayers, S. (2020). Measuring and conceptualizing PTSD following childbirth: Validation of the City Birth Trauma Scale. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(2), 147–155.

Psouni, E., & Eichbichler, A. (2020). Feelings of restriction and incompetence in parenting mediate the link between attachment anxiety and paternal postnatal depression. Psychology of Men & Masculinities, 21(3), 416–429.

Ruybal, A. L., & Siegel, J. T. (2017). Increasing social support for women with postpartum depression: An application of attribution theory. Stigma and Health, 2(2), 137–156. 

Singley, D. B., & Edwards, L. M. (2015). Men’s perinatal mental health in the transition to fatherhood. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 46(5), 309–316. 

Smith, G. E., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. X. (1997). Self-esteem and the relation between risk behavior and perceptions of vulnerability to unplanned pregnancy in college women. Health Psychology, 16(2), 137–146. 

Soliday, E., McCluskey-Fawcett, K., & O'Brien, M. (1999). Postpartum affect and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69(1), 30–38.

Swami, V., Vintila, M., Goian, C., Tudorel, O., & Bucur, V. (2020). Mental health literacy of maternal and paternal postnatal depression in a community sample of Romanian adults. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 9(3), 147–158.

Tomfohr-Madsen, L., Cameron, E. E., Dunkel Schetter, C., Campbell, T., O'Beirne, M., Letourneau, N., & Giesbrecht, G. F. (2019). Pregnancy anxiety and preterm birth: The moderating role of sleep. Health Psychology, 38(11), 1025–1035. 

Tu, K. M., Erath, S. A., & El-Sheikh, M. (2016). Coping responses moderate prospective associations between marital conflict and youth adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(5), 523–532. 

Troilo, J. (2017). Stay tuned: Portrayals of fatherhood to come. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 6(1), 82–94.

van Scheppingen, M. A., Denissen, J. J. A., Chung, J. M., Tambs, K., & Bleidorn, W. (2018). Self-esteem and relationship satisfaction during the transition to motherhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(6), 973–991. 

Watson, H. J., Zerwas, S., Torgersen, L., Gustavson, K., Diemer, E. W., Knudsen, G. P., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., & Bulik, C. M. (2017). Maternal eating disorders and perinatal outcomes: A three-generation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(5), 552–564. 

Whisman, M. A., Davila, J., & Goodman, S. H. (2011). Relationship adjustment, depression, and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(3), 375–383.

Woody, M. L., McGeary, J. E., & Gibb, B. E. (2014). Brooding rumination and heart rate variability in women at high and low risk for depression: Group differences and moderation by COMT genotype. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(1), 61–67.

Additional References:
- Alternative Treatments For Postpartum Mood Disorders; Mothering; May/Jun2007, Issue 142

- Brown, Sylvia and Mary Dowd Struck, R.M., M.S., C.N.M. The Post-Pregnancy Handbook. St. Martin’s Press: New York. 2002.

- Burke, Sara E.; Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F. Witnessing Disclosure of Depression: Gender and Attachment Avoidance Moderate Interpersonal Evaluations. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology. Jun2014, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p536-559. 24p. DOI: 10.1521/jscp.2014.33.6.536.

- De Judicibus, Margaret A., McCabe, Marita P.; Psychological Factors and the Sexuality of Pregnant and Postpartum Women; Journal of Sex Research; May 2002, Vol. 39, Issue 2

- Depression. Depression Annual Report, Dec2001\

- Depression During Pregnancy and After; Harvard Mental Health Letter; Sep 2002; Vol. 19, Issue 3

- Dietz, Laura J., Jennings, Kay Donahue, Abrew, Amy J.; Social Skill in Self-Assertive Strategies of Toddlers with Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers; Journal of Genetic Psychology; Mar 2005; Vol. 166, Issue 1

- Dubenetzky, Salome. Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety Disorders. Annals of Psychotherapy & Integrative Health. Summer2013, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p40-46. 7p. 2 Color Photographs, 3 Illustrations.

- Dulude, D., Wright, J., Belanger, C.; The effects of pregnancy complications on the parental adaptation process.; Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology; Feb 2000; Vol. 18, Issue 1

- Elliott, S. A., Leverton, T. J.; Is the EPDS a magic wand?: 2. 'Myths' and the evidence base; Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology; Nov 2000; Vol. 18, Issue 4

- Gifford, Elizabeth V.; Tavakoli, Sara; Wang, Ruey; Hagedorn, Hildi J.; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W. Tobacco dependence diagnosis and treatment in Veterans Health Administration residential substance use disorder treatment programs. Addiction. Jun2013, Vol. 108 Issue 6, p1127-1135. 9p. 4 Charts. DOI: 10.1111/add.12105.

- Giosan, Cezar; Cobeanu, Oana; Mogoase, Cristina; Muresan, Vlad; Malta, Loretta S.; Wyka, Katarzyna; Szentagotai, Aurora. Evolutionary cognitive therapy versus standard cognitive therapy for depression: a protocol for a blinded, randomized, superiority clinical trial. Trials. 2014, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p1-25. 25p. 1 Diagram. DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-83.

- Graham, J.E., Lobel, M., Deluca, R.S.; Anger After Childbirth: An Overlooked Reaction to Postpartum Stressors; Psychology of Women Quarterly; Fall 2002; Vol. 26, Issue 3.

- Health Communications Division. Postpartum Nutrition Module. TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH • BUREAU OF NUTRITION SERVICES, Rev. 7/1/03.

- Hendricks, K., & Liu, J. (2012). Childbearing depression and childhood aggression: literature review. MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing, 37(4), 253–261. doi:10.1097/NMC.0b013e3182482c5e.

- Johnson, Teddi Dineley; More postpartum depression programs reaching mothers; Nation’s Health; Aug2002; Vol. 36, Issue 6

- Kelly, Alice Lesch; When Mama Sings the Blues; Fit Pregnancy; Apr/May 2005; Vol.12, Issue

- Koerner, Naomi; Antony, Martin; Young, Lisa; McCabe, Randi. Changes in Beliefs about the Social Competence of Self and Others Following Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment. Cognitive Therapy & Research. Apr2013, Vol. 37 Issue 2, p256-265. 10p. 3 Charts. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-012-9472-5.

- Kolk, Bessel; Najavits, Lisa M. Interview: What is PTSD Really? Surprises, Twists of History, and the Politics of Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology. May2013, Vol. 69 Issue 5, p516-522. 7p. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.21992.

- Landes, Sara J. The Case: Treating Jared Through Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology. May2013, Vol. 69 Issue 5, p488-489. 2p. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.21984

- Levy, Mark, Sabraw, Stacy; Moms Who Kill; Psychology Today; Dec 2002; Vol. 35, Issue 6

- Lewis, C. A., Bers, A. D., Malard, S. D., and Dawson, G. A. Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychosis. The Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 36(1). p. 5-14.

- Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Wisner, Katherine; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Does Maternal Role Functioning Improve with Antidepressant Treatment in Women with Postpartum Depression?; Journal of Women's Health, January 2009, Vol 18 Issue 1, p85

- Matos, Marcela; Pinto-Gouveia, José. Shamed by a Parent or by Others: The Role of Attachment in Shame Memories Relation to Depression. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy. 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 2, p217-244. 28p.

- Maeda, Uta; Shen, Biing-Jiun; Schwarz, Ernst; Farrell, Kristen; Mallon, Stephen. Self-Efficacy Mediates the Associations of Social Support and Depression with Treatment Adherence in Heart Failure Patients. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Mar2013, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p88-96. 9p. 2 Diagrams, 2 Charts. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-011-9215-0.

- Misri, Shaila Kulkarni, M.D., F.R.C.P.C. Pregnancy Blues. Delacorte Press: New York. 2005.

- Persistent Fatigue May Be Best Way to Predict Onset of Postpartum Depression; Ascribe Newswire: Health; 2/7/2006

- Philip J. cowen and Michael Browning. What has serotonin to do with depression?. National Center for Biotechnology Information. World Psychiatry 14:2 - June 2015, p158-160.

- Romano, M., Cacciatore, A., Giordano, R., & La Rosa, B. (2010). Postpartum period: three distinct but continuous phases. Journal of prenatal medicine, 4(2), 22–25.

- Ross, Lori E.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; The Prevalence of Postpartum Depression among Women with Substance Use, an Abuse History, or Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review; Journal of Women's Health, April 2009, Vol 18 Issue 4, p475

- Savage, Elayne, Ph.D. Don’t Take It Personally!. Barnes & Noble Books: New York. 1997.

- Sebastian, Linda. Overcoming Postpartum Depression & Anxiety. Addicus Books: Omaha, NE. 1998.

- Shapero, Benjamin G.; Black, Shimrit K.; Liu, Richard T.; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B. Stressful Life Events and Depression Symptoms: The Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse on Stress Reactivity. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Mar2014, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p209-223. 15p. 2 Charts. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22011

- White, A. (2016). Postpartum PTSD: Prevention and Treatment.

- Wile, M. (2019). From Pregnancy to Postpartum The Effects of Maternal Depression on Mothers, Infants, and Toddlers. National Conference of State Legislatures.

- Zittel-Palamara, Kimberley; Cercone, Sarah A.; Rockmaker, Julie R.; Spiritual Support for Women with Postpartum Depression; Journal of Psychology & Christianity, October 2009, Vol 28 Issue 3, p213.

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