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Autism Spectrum Disorder: Promoting Communication & Socialization Skills
3 CEUs Autism: Teaching Parents how to Prompt Communication & Socialization

Section 11
Autism Spectrum Disorder Guide to Evidence-based Interventions

CEU Question 11 | CEU Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | Autism
Social Worker CEUs, Counselor CEUs, Psychologist CEs, MFT CEUs


The Flip Book below is from The Division of Developmental Disabilities, Missouri Department of Mental Healthealth.

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-Missouri Autism Guidelines Initiative. Autism Spectrum Disorder Guide to Evidence-based Interventions, Thompson Foundation for Autism; the Division of Developmental Disabilities, Missouri Department of Mental Health; the Office of Special Education, Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education; and Mercy Children’s Hospital – St. Louisand Springfield, 2012, p 1-238..
The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.

Online Continuing Education QUESTION 11
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Table of Contents

What works and how: Adult learner perspectives on an autism intervention training program in India
Autism, Ahead of Print.
A significant treatment gap exists in low and middle income countries such as India for children with autism spectrum disorder. The Autism Intervention Training Program, a comprehensive 6-month program for training professionals in transdisciplinary evidence-based practices to address concerns associated with autism spectrum disorder, was piloted in India to address this gap. This study attempted to capture the perspectives of trainees on the effectiveness of andragogical approaches adopted in the Autism Intervention Training Program and the impact of this training on their work. An exploratory qualitative study was conceptualized, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 Autism Intervention Training Program trainees. Trainees highlighted the benefits of a blended training format, peer learning, and a responsive, reflective, experiential, and respectful approach to teaching and supervision. The impact of the program was perceived through an increase in trainees’ knowledge and skills, impact on their organizations, and positive outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder and their families. There is a need to develop and document comprehensive, contextualized, and evidence-based training programs for autism spectrum disorder professionals in low and middle income countries. Focusing on andragogical frameworks while conceptualizing and delivering these training programs is underscored, as approaches that promote self-efficacy in learners and enable transformative learning can lead to a cascading impact in resource-constrained settings.
Predictors and outcomes associated with therapeutic alliance in cognitive behaviour therapy for children with autism
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Therapeutic alliance is often an important aspect of psychotherapy, though it is rarely examined in clients with autism. This study aims to determine the child pre-treatment variables and treatment outcomes associated with early and late alliance in cognitive behaviour therapy targeting emotion regulation for children with autism. Data were collected from 48 children with autism who participated in a larger randomized-controlled trial. Pre-treatment child characteristics included child, parent, and clinician report of child emotional and behavioural functioning. Primary outcome measures included child and parent-reported emotion regulation. Therapeutic alliance (bond and task-collaboration) was measured using observational coding of early and late therapy sessions. Pre-treatment levels of child-reported emotion inhibition were associated with subsequent early and late bond. Pre-treatment levels of parent and child-reported emotion regulation were related to early and late task-collaboration. Late task-collaboration was also associated with pre-treatment levels of behavioural and emotional symptom severity. Task-collaboration in later sessions predicted improvements in parent-reported emotion regulation from pre- to post-therapy. Future research is needed to further examine the role of task-collaboration as a mechanism of treatment change in therapies for children with autism.
Screening and treatment of trauma-related symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder among community providers in the United States
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Using a cross-sectional survey of 673 multidisciplinary autism spectrum disorder providers recruited from five different sites in the United States, we examined the frequency with which community-based providers inquire about, screen, and treat trauma-related symptoms in their patients/students and assessed their perceptions regarding the need for and barriers to providing these services. Univariate and bivariate frequencies of self-reported trauma service provision, training needs, and barriers were estimated. Multivariable logistic regressions identified provider and patient-related factors associated with trauma-related symptoms screening and treatment. Over 50% of providers reported some screening and treatment of trauma-related symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Over 70% informally inquired about trauma-related symptoms; only 10% universally screened. Screening and treatment varied by provider discipline, setting, amount of interaction, and years of experience with autism spectrum disorder, as well as by patient/student sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Most providers agreed that trauma screening is a needed service impeded by inadequate provider training in trauma identification and treatment. The findings indicate that community providers in the United States of varied disciplines are assessing and treating trauma-related symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder, and that evidence-based approaches are needed to inform and maximize these efforts.
Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder: A clinical effectiveness study
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder commonly co-occur. Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder has not previously been evaluated outside the United Kingdom. In this study, 19 adults with obsessive–compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder were treated using an adapted cognitive behavior therapy protocol that consisted of 20 sessions focused on exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the clinician-rated Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale. Participants were assessed up to 3 months after treatment. There were significant reductions on the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale at post-treatment (d = 1.5), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (d = 1.2). Self-rated obsessive–compulsive disorder and depressive symptoms showed statistically significant reductions. Improvements in general functioning and quality of life were statistically non-significant. Three participants (16%) were responders at post-treatment and four (21%) were in remission from obsessive–compulsive disorder. At follow-up, three participants (16%) were responders and one (5%) was in full remission. Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder in adults with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder is associated with reductions in obsessive–compulsive symptoms and depressive symptoms. However, outcomes are modest; few patients were completely symptom free, and treatment engagement was low with few completed exposures and low adherence to homework assignments. We identify and discuss the need for further treatment refinement for this vulnerable group.
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder and a matched case-control sample
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy is an empirically based, behavioral parent training program for young children exhibiting disruptive behaviors. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy shows promise for treating disruptive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder. Treatment processes (i.e. treatment length and homework compliance), parenting skills, parenting stress, and behavioral outcomes (i.e. disruptive and externalizing behaviors and executive functioning) were compared in 16 children with autism spectrum disorder and 16 children without autism spectrum disorder matched on gender, age, and initial intensity of disruptive behaviors. Samples were statistically similar in terms of child receptive language, child race and ethnicity, parent age, gender and education, and number of two-parent families in treatment. Families received standard, mastery-based Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. Both groups demonstrated significant and clinically meaningful improvements in child disruptive and externalizing behavior and executive functioning, parenting skills, and parenting stress. Length of treatment, homework compliance, and parent and child outcomes did not differ significantly between groups. A subset of children with autism spectrum disorder also showed significant improvements in social responsiveness, adaptive skills, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. This study replicates and extends prior research by demonstrating that children with and without autism spectrum disorder experience similar benefits following Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. Findings may expand the availability and dissemination of time-limited, evidence-based interventions for autism spectrum disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviors.

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