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Cultural Diversity & Ethical Boundaries: Overcoming Barriers to Counseling Effectiveness
On the last track, we discussed the culturally different client’s Locus of Control, as well as the Locus of Responsibility. Your culturally different client may have either an Internal Locus of Control or an External Locus of Control. In counseling, your culturally different client may adopt either an Internal Locus of Responsibility or an External Locus of Responsibility.
On this track, we will discuss the ethical treatment of fear in culturally different clients who are coping with the five stages of identity development and the loci of control and responsibility discussed on the previous tracks.
As you can see Carlota’s problem is not just her anger. I suspected that Carlota’s anger was actually rooted in another emotion. I asked Carlota, "When you try to comprehend the reasons for your anger, what do you come up with?" Carlota stated, "I know I have a hard time trusting people that aren’t Hispanic. It becomes a never-ending cycle. I want to get close to someone, but I’m sure I send signals indicating discomfort. So that person rejects me and I get mad. Then when another potential relationship comes along I’m all the more skeptical, so the cycle repeats itself."
I stated to Carlota, "I’m hearing you say that you are guided by your fears." Carlota looked surprised. She stated, "Fear? I always knew I was angry, but I didn’t think I was living in fear." It seemed to me that Carlota needed guidance in identifying fear. Do you agree?
Carlota counted her tally marks and stated, "I have seven points." I explained to Carlota that each of the statements represented a subtle form of fear. I stated, "Having more than five points in the ‘Subtle Fears’ exercise usually may mean you struggle often with fear. That fear, in turn, brings frustration and anger into your world."
Do you have a client of a different culture who, like Carlota, is expressing his or her fear through anger? Ethically would your Carlota benefit from the "Describing Fear" technique? Or would your Carlota benefit more from the "Subtle Fears" exercise? From an ethical perspective, how might her cultural background influence the counseling process?
On this track, we have discussed the treatment of fear in culturally different clients.
On the next track, we will discuss discuss relevant processes and goals in counseling culturally different clients. We will also discuss Ivey and Authiur’s four conditions that may arise in counseling a client of a different culture. These four conditions are Appropriate Process and Appropriate Goals, Appropriate Process and Inappropriate Goals, Inappropriate Process and Appropriate Goals, and Inappropriate Process and Inappropriate Goals.
A Treatment Improvement Protocol
- SAMHSA. (2014). A Treatment Improvement Protocol Improving Cultural Competence. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Chavez-Korell, S., Rendón, A. D., Beer, J., Rodriguez, N., Garr, A. D., Pine, C. A., Farías, R., Larson, L., & Malcolm, E. (2012). Improving access and reducing barriers to depression treatment for Latino elders: Un Nuevo Amanecer (A New Dawn). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(3), 217–226.
Richins, M. T., Barreto, M., Karl, A., & Lawrence, N. (2021). Incidental fear reduces empathy for an out-group’s pain. Emotion, 21(3), 536–544.
Schwarzenthal, M., Schachner, M. K., van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Juang, L. P. (2018). Equal but different: Effects of equality/inclusion and cultural pluralism on intergroup outcomes in multiethnic classrooms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(2), 260–271.
Tormala, T. T., Patel, S. G., Soukup, E. E., & Clarke, A. V. (2018). Developing measurable cultural competence and cultural humility: An application of the cultural formulation. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 12(1), 54–61.
Turner, E. A., & Llamas, J. D. (2017). The role of therapy fears, ethnic identity, and spirituality on access to mental health treatment among Latino college students. Psychological Services, 14(4), 524–530.
Online Continuing Education QUESTION 6
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