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Role/s Of The Therapist
We turn now to problems related to inevitable changes that occur in the treatment process when AIDS-related symptoms, such as early dementia, appear, and when the patient is ill and dying. Here we are faced with the question: At what point does one finally terminate analysis, or at what point is one's work as a psychotherapist over? Defining termination is fraught with the possibility of leaving a patient vulnerable and in a state of abandonment which may simply undo the work of analysis. Still further, how can the analytic relationship continue if dementia or other related illnesses have set in?
Ultimately, Sadowy's stance is resoundingly complicated once the patient's ability to move and speak ceases. In her words: "I had to go beyond the usual therapeutic parameters and trust in another therapeutic communication. In continuing this treatment, I had to believe in and use a type of communication between two inner selves. I had to be willing to gratify a symbiotic connection with my patient as we attempted to disengage from her rapidly dying external reality and to enter a living vibrant internal reality."
Dealing with the dying patient also challenges the therapist's ideas about responsiveness and gratification in treatment. In this regard, issues of simple gratification may be necessary. To frustrate certain needs may be to ignore a wound and convey a fear to the patient.
There is no simple answer to the question of termination. Ideally, we would hope that much of the work in dealing with the internal trauma would have been done by this stage so the patient feels he could be left to be cared for by family and friends. Overinvestment on the therapist's part is a crucial dilemma at this point and often emerges in reaction to the pending limitations of the analyst's role. Overinvolvement not only compromises therapeutic involvement, it may also be obstructive to the caring of others closer to the patient. Here, the patient's needs, close adherence to the goals of therapy, an analysis of external support and close supervision are the best help in terms of guidance.
Perhaps the most effective analytic position at this point is one that lies between termination and overinvolvement, where the therapist takes on a removed containing position for all involved. This was the case with Guy when he had deteriorated to a point where he could no longer see, and his psychotic behavior greatly distressed his family and home caregivers.
Case 1 (cont'd): I felt a resurgence of my own helplessness and was left battling with the idea that all that could have been done for him directly by me had been done, while acknowledging a sense that this did not feel adequate or "good enough." To withdraw at this point felt as if I would be behaving as if Guy had already died. At the same time, I felt that offering direct care as part of the home-care team would simply fuel an enactment of a fantasy to cure till the end.
Containment And Interpretation
The interpretation of anxieties and transference derivatives have to be finely conducted on the basis of an appreciation for the patients' internalization of HIV as a traumatizing object and their overall physical condition and attendant medical regimens. Interpretations, linking behavior, emotions, and fantasies to the patients' seropositivity, if not accurate, run the risk of replaying stigmatization, rewounding them, reminding them they are sick when they do not feel ill at all.
The third function of interpretation is related to the restoration of the symbolic function that allows meaning to aggregate around traumatic material. The required depth and attainment of a finer, deeper, and more effective interpretative role provides the atmosphere for mental enlivening and exploration of the symbolic.
Case 1 (cont'd): Guy's dream, for instance, presented symbolic foci that enabled the therapeutic dyad to move out of the barren space of nebulous fear into a space filled by objects onto which anxiety could be attached and elaborated. For instance, his dream about land mines, presented earlier, allowed for interpretation related to the paradoxical representation of fragility/ destructiveness, and robustness enabling Guy to realize that even in the face of impending death, life has purpose and continuance.
Feelings of hopelessness, the therapist's personal struggle with issues of death and illness, and the degree of uncertainty that underlies the diagnosis make this work more prone to enactment. All this is often fuelled by a deep sense of inadequacy about one's therapeutic role and realistic capabilities in dealing with chronic illness. Still further, the suspension of the symbolic function also makes the therapist more vulnerable to communicating through action rather than words.
Apart from the general need for the therapist to acknowledge and work through countertransference states that hamper the therapeutic process, attention to particular tasks may assist in managing countertransference states. Purnell, for instance, emphasizes the need for the therapist to actively attend to his/her own mourning during the process. Feldmann, on the other hand, points out the need to have clear, limited goals and expectations of treatment to prevent a sense of feeling overwhelmed by the processes. Feldmann also suggests that the therapist take regular breaks from this type of work to preserve his/her capacity to work with HIV sufferers. Certainly, support groups and supervision are indispensable in helping the therapist attend to his/her own containment.
Countertransference management is complicated further by the changes that occur in the therapist's role. If the therapist changes his/her therapeutic stance due to inevitable complications in the treatment process, how are we to distinguish this from enactment? Here, a distinction between enactment and behavior motivated by external factors is useful. Theoretically, one might say that enactment, whether evoked by the patient or not, stems solely from the analyst's unconscious motivation while a realistic response to complications is motivated by an external situation beyond the therapeutic dyad. The former threatens to foreclose the analytic space whereas the latter is an attempt at preservation.
Case 1 (cont'd): When Guy began to present with signs of dementia, I was faced with the dilemma of deciding whether my care at this point needed to be more active and direct. It was clearly a struggle for him to come for therapy and because his cognitive functioning was deteriorating, interpretative work was clearly out of the question. My therapeutic role was no longer clearly defined. Around this period, a medical consultant informed me that Guy needed to go for an eye consultation where he was not going to receive good news. It was clear that Guy's parents were extremely elderly and frail and physically unable to attend to Guy outside of the home and there was, at the time, no one else available. With few options, I eventually decided to assist and accompany him to the local hospital. This meant much running about, securing a wheelchair, and waiting until we were attended to.
In dynamic terms, this could be construed as a simple case of a crude kind of enactment on my part. However, it may also be conceptualized as a response to a constraining external situation that outweighs the need for a more removed therapeutic stance at this point.
Reflection Exercise #10
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Only five of 12 low- and middle-income countries had transition guidelines, according to a systemic review of adolescents living with HIV transitioning from paediatric to adult health care published in AIDS and Behavior. The authors believe this to be the first review to survey the literature on barriers and facilitators of transition for adolescents living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries and to compare these factors to countries’ current guidelines.
Three models of same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART), tested in different hospitals in Thailand, are feasible and safe, researchers report. The models have been implemented in Thailand since 2017, following a World Health Organization recommendation that all individuals diagnosed as HIV positive should receive ART on the same day of diagnosis, if they are ready.
An ageing population of people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in countries in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, according to an analysis of 44 countries with data from 2000 to 2016, published in the Journal of the International AIDS Society.
The annual number of new HIV diagnoses in San Francisco has dipped below 200, falling to its lowest level since the peak of the epidemic in the early 1990s, according to the city's HIV Epidemiology Annual Report for 2018. Total new diagnoses fell to 197, with decreases seen in most population groups. However, diagnoses among African-American and Latino men showed an increase after declining for several years.
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Role/s Of The Therapist
In terms of gaining knowledge about the virus, Schaffner argues that this becomes an inevitable part of the analyst's role. This would especially be the case where access to other resources is problematic. It may however also simply be dealt with by referring individuals to appropriate sources,