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Enhancing Your Therapy with Gestalt Approaches
6 CEUs Cultural Diversity & Ethical Boundaries: Freedom from Stereotypes

Section 27
A Century of Gestalt Psychology in Visual Perception

CEU Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | Gestalt
Counselor CEUs, Psychologist CEs, Social Worker CEUs, MFT CEUs


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- Wagemans, Johan; James H. Elder; Michael Kubovy; Stephen E. Palmer; Mary A. Peterson; Manish Singh; and Rüdiger von der Heydt, A Century of Gestalt Psychology in Visual Perception I. Perceptual Grouping and Figure-Ground Organization. National Institute of Health, November 2012, p1-89.


The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.

 
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CEU Answer Booklet for this course | Gestalt
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The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.
The development and validation of the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure II. - August 30, 2018
Critical consciousness (CC) has been heralded as an antidote to oppression. Developed by the Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, CC represents the process by which individuals gain awareness of societal inequities and subsequently take action to dismantle the systems and institutions that sustain them. Empirically supported instruments intended to assess this important construct have only been recently introduced to the literature and have focused specifically on racism, classism, and heterosexism. The purpose of this project was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of CC that expands assessment into sexism, cissexism (genderism/transphobia), and ableism. Two studies with a total of 569 observations provided initial reliability and validity evidence on the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure II (CCCMII). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the final 37-item CCCMII provides a general index of CC as well as assesses CC associated with sexism and ableism above and beyond the general factor. Results support the internal consistency and factor structure of the measure. Expected relationships between the CCCMII and existing measures of sexism, cissexism, and ableism provide evidence for the validity of the instrument. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Gendered Racism Scales for Asian American Men: Scale development and psychometric properties. - July 23, 2018
The Gendered Racism Scales for Asian American Men (GRSAM) was developed to assess the frequency and stress level of gendered racism perceived by Asian American men. The development of the new measure was grounded in the Intersectional Fusion Paradigm. This paradigm explains individuals’ experiences of discrimination based on unique combinations of multiple interlocking identities that individuals experience simultaneously. In mixed samples of college students and community adults, GRSAM’s factor structure as well as evidence of convergent validity, criterion-related validity, discriminant validity, incremental validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability was examined. Exploratory factor analyses revealed three dimensions of GRSAM: Psychological Emasculation, Perceived Undesirable Partner, and Perceived Lack of Leadership. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a bifactor model was a better fit to the data than a correlated three-factor model and a higher-order model. Results of correlation and regression analyses further provided evidence for different aspects of construct validity and internal consistency. Both the Frequency and Stress versions of GRSAM positively predicted psychological distress and somatic symptoms above and beyond the effects of general racism experienced by Asian Americans and masculine gender role stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Asian American Women: Development and initial validation. - July 30, 2018
Asian American women’s (AAW’s) mental health issues have received growing public attention; recent statistics suggest alarmingly high suicide rates among AAW. Yet, little research has examined the nuanced oppression that AAW face and the daily effects of compounded racism and sexism contributing to their mental health issues. Applying the intersectionality and microaggressions framework, we developed the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Asian American Women (GRMSAAW) using data collected from 564 AAW. Items were developed via literature review, focus group, and expert review. Exploratory (N = 304) and confirmatory (N = 260) factor analyses suggested a 4-factor structure and produced 22-item scales of frequency and stress appraisal with the following subscales: (a) Ascription of Submissiveness, (b) Assumption of Universal Appearance, (c) Asian Fetishism, and (d) Media Invalidation. Internal consistency estimates were .80 and above for frequency and stress appraisal scales, and the scales accounted for 52% and 60% of variance, respectively. Examination of a bifactor model containing one general factor and four group factors suggested that GRMSAAW could be represented unidimensionally (total scale score) for the purpose of applied measurement. Initial construct validity was established as GRMSAAW scores were associated with sexism, racial microaggressions, depressive symptoms, and internalized racism in ways consistent with theory. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Experiences of transmasculine spectrum people who report nonsuicidal self-injury: A qualitative investigation. - August 02, 2018
Transgender populations experience mental and physical health disparities compared to nontransgender populations, including nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Guided by the minority stress theory and Nock’s model of NSSI, this study explored perspectives of transmasculine spectrum people (i.e., people with a gender identity that is man, male, transgender man, genderqueer, or nonbinary and who were assigned female at birth) who engage in NSSI. Qualitative interviews were conducted with transmasculine spectrum people (N = 18) who reported a history of NSSI. Their mean age was 24.9 years old (SD = 5.43, range = 17–38). Participants reported that NSSI was influenced by a variety of factors including stress from gender nonconformity in childhood and adolescence. Stigma related to minority status and identity as well as proximal minority stress processes of concealment and expectations of rejection were identified as contributing to NSSI. Transgender identity development tasks such as coming out and identity exploration also appeared to affect NSSI. Finding a community of peers who engage in NSSI was helpful in mitigating social isolation, but at times reinforced NSSI. We discuss clinical implications at the individual and family levels. Interventions to reduce NSSI among transmasculine-spectrum people should include facilitating connections with gender minority peers and providing individual support and family interventions to facilitate transgender identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
The relative importance of parent–child dynamics and minority stress on the psychological adjustment of LGBs in China. - July 12, 2018
This cross-sectional study examined how minority stress (i.e., internalized homonegativity, self-concealment, and rejection sensitivity) and positive parent–child relationship dynamics (i.e., respect for parents and perceived parental support for sexual orientation) were associated with the psychological adjustment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in China. Based on survey responses from 277 self-identified Chinese LGB young adults, results from structural equation modeling showed that minority stress was not a significant predictor of psychological maladjustment, whereas respect for parents and perceived parental support for sexual orientation were associated with positive psychological adjustment. Tests of gender differences partially confirmed whether Confucian traditions may burden sexual minority men more than women. Gender differences were found in the correlations between minority stress and each measure of positive parent–child relationship dynamics. However, the associations between independent variables and psychological maladjustment were not different between men and women in the sample. Our results suggest that culture-specific variables, such as parent–child factors within the context of China, may be especially important when working with LGB individuals in research and clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

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