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Adventure Based Counseling (ABC) is a therapeutic tool that can be adapted to almost any setting and is a mixture of experiential learning, outdoor education, group counseling (Schoel, Prouty, & Radcliffe, 1988), and intrapersonal exploration. Although obviously not a panacea, the conceptual framework of ABC is based on several counseling theories including behavioral and cognitive theories, experiential learning, an affective perspective (Priest & Gass, 1997; Schoel et al., 1988), as well as a process of events that promotes positive change. ABC involves activities in which clients are essentially learning by doing (Gass, 1993a). Galagan's (1987) adventure-based learning by doing program was positively associated with personal growth, accountability, support, trust, and a sense of personal energy. Similarly, Vester (1987) has presented a framework of leisure that focuses on adventure as a form of counseling. Descriptively, a counselor using ABC typically chooses an experiential activity that possesses strong metaphoric relationships to the goals of counseling. The counselor may then give directives for an adventure-based activity and, during the process, make references to metaphors, thereby creating a connection from the adventure activity to real life (Gass, 1995). After this experience, counselors debrief the client to reinforce positive behavior changes, reframe potentially negative interpretations of the experience, and focus on the integration of functional change into the client's lifestyle (Gass, 1995; Hinkle, 1999; Luckner & Nadler, 1992; Priest & Gass, 1997). ABC is developing into a significant area of counseling intervention. The efficacy of ABC has been minimally supported in the research literature; however, methodological flaws in research designs may actually minimize reported effectiveness rates (see Nassar-McMillan & Cashwell, 1997). Continued theory development and empirical research are obviously needed, particularly on the long-term effects of ABC.
Conceptual Framework Of ABC: Although ABC uses traditional psychosocial and educational theories involving individual, group, and family counseling, ABC differs from traditional counseling. These differences include the setting, the use of real and perceived risk, additional required skills, additional ethical considerations, an emphasis on processing and metaphor, and transfer of learning to psychological, educational, sociological, physical, and spiritual benefits. ABC can be used as a primary treatment or as an adjunct to more traditional types bf counseling. Although traditional counseling usually takes place indoors or in an office setting, ABC often takes place in the outdoors. There is also the perception of risk or real risk in ABC that is not found in typical counseling settings. ABC requires traditional counseling skills (i.e., what experiential educators refer to as "soft" skills) as well as additional physical skills (i.e., what adventure based counselors refer to as "hard" skills, such as challenge ropes course management, rock climbing, hiking, camping, and kayaking). Facilitation of activities includes programming, or selecting appropriate activities, and macroprocessing, which includes six facilitation styles. These styles, described more fully in this article, are as follows: no loading, front loading, back loading, or front- and backloading, and the use of metaphor and paradox. Finally, the adventure-based experience is transferred to real life through processing. Because ABC originated from experiential education and outdoor education, a model is needed for the counseling profession to transfer the traditional practices from outdoor and experiential education to a more therapeutic realm. To do so, counselors, counselor educators, and counselors-in-training need to develop an understanding of how the entire process works. Finally, ABC is relatively new to the counseling field, and a model helps to organize the relative information so that it is easier to comprehend, teach, and apply.
Theory Application: ABC is derived from individual, group, and family counseling models, as well as from educational theories. The primary individual counseling theories or therapies that combine to contribute to ABC are cognitive (Beck, 1963), rational emotive behavioral (Ellis, 1962), reality (Glasser, 1965), behavioral (Bandura, 1969; Skinner, 1953), gestalt (Zinker, 1977), narrative (Bruner, 1985), and constructivist (Fosnot, 1989). Cognitive theory is used in ABC to help clients understand the association between their adventure experience and their cognitive processes and how thought processes may affect relationships with others as well as with the self. Rational emotive behavioral theory can be effectively used when assessing risk or perceived risk. For example, if a person is in a low-risk situation but perceives the situation as high risk, irrational thoughts of risk can be challenged so the client is able to confront and differentiate between real and perceived risks (Priest & Gass, 1997). Of course, having a client differentiate between real and perceived risks is consistent with current behavior therapy that relies heavily on a cognitive base. Also, ABC uses reinforcement theory as a basic component of its approach. Reality theory is incorporated into ABC by the highlighting of natural consequences, taking responsibility for one's own actions, and working in the present toward the future (Clagett, 1992).
Gestalt therapy is relevant to the adventure experience in that individuals process events while they are occurring. This happens in microprocessing as new skills or insights from the experience are applied to real life. Furthermore, the "in the moment" focus of ABC is consistent with gestalt therapy. Narrative therapy, a technique used to write and rewrite a person's "story," is similarly used in ABC. The adventure experience can be used as a metaphor to rewrite a person's past. Finally, constructivist theory is based on the individual creating his or her own reality. ABC can assist with this process by adding another dimension to a person's reality through the insight gained from the adventure experience (Luckner & Nadler, 1992).
ABC can be used intentionally to address individual needs, but many ABC activities emphasize work in groups. The application of group counseling models is important for understanding group development and group dynamics (Gazda, Ginter, & Horne, 2001). Luckner and Nadler (1992) have identified a model of group development that is specific to ABC. These stages include acquaintance, goal ambiguity, diffusing anxiety, members' search for position, focus on affect and confrontation, sharpened interactions (growth), norm crystallization, distributive leadership, decreased defensiveness and increased experimentation, group potency, and termination.
Adjunct and Primary Treatment: The aforementioned theories have been identified to provide a better understanding of how ABC is grounded and supported. ABC can be used as an adjunct to treatment or as the primary treatment (Gass, 1995). In counseling, it will most likely be used as an adjunctive treatment intervention (Bandaroff & Parrish, 1997). For example, a day hike may be used adjunctively with breast cancer survivors to help them relax, engage in a peaceful environment, and have success with something that requires healthy, physical exertion. In contrast, an adolescent residential treatment facility may use longer trips using an outdoor setting with ABC as the primary treatment, and clients are expected to make behavioral changes as a result.
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This article introduces the special section on intersectionality research in counseling psychology. Across the 4 manuscripts that constitute this special section, a clear theme emerges: a need to return to the roots and politics of intersectionality. Importantly, the 2 empirical articles in this special section (Jerald, Cole, Ward, & Avery, 2017; Lewis, Williams, Peppers, & Gadson, 2017) are studies of Black women’s experiences: a return, so to speak, to the subject positions and social locations from which intersectionality emanates. Shin et al. (2017) explore why this focus on Black feminist thought and social justice is so important by highlighting the persistent weaknesses in how much research published in leading counseling psychology journals has tended to use intersectionality as a way to talk about multiple identities, rather than as a framework for critiquing systemic, intersecting forms of oppression and privilege. Shin and colleagues also point to the possibilities intersectionality affords us when scholars realize the transformative potential of this critical framework. Answers to this call for transformative practices are foregrounded in Moradi and Grzanka’s (2017) contribution, which surveys the interdisciplinary literature on intersectionality and presents a series of guidelines for using intersectionality responsibly. We close with a discussion of issues concerning the applications of intersectionality to counseling psychology research that spans beyond the contributions of each manuscript in this special section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
The framework of intersectionality is a powerful analytical tool for making sense of how interlocking systems of privilege and oppression are experienced by individuals and groups. Despite the long history of the concept, intersectionality has only recently gained attention in psychology. We conducted a content analysis to assess counseling psychology’s engagement with an intersectional perspective. All articles published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (n = 4,800) and The Counseling Psychologist (n = 1,915) from their first issues until July 2016 were reviewed to identify conceptual and empirical work focused on intersectionality. A total of 40 articles were identified and examined for themes. Limitations and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
The purpose of this study was to apply an intersectionality framework to explore the influence of gendered racism (i.e., intersection of racism and sexism) on health outcomes. Specifically, we applied intersectionality to extend a biopsychosocial model of racism to highlight the psychosocial variables that mediate and moderate the influence of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle gendered racism) on health outcomes. In addition, we tested aspects of this conceptual model by exploring the influence of gendered racial microaggressions on the mental and physical health of Black women. In addition, we explored the mediating role of coping strategies and the moderating role of gendered racial identity centrality. Participants were 231 Black women who completed an online survey. Results from regression analyses indicated that gendered racial microaggressions significantly predicted both self-reported mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, results from mediation analyses indicated that disengagement coping significantly mediated the link between gendered racial microaggressions and negative mental and physical health. In addition, a moderated mediation effect was found, such that individuals who reported a greater frequency of gendered racial microaggressions and reported lower levels of gendered racial identity centrality tended to use greater disengagement coping, which in turn, was negatively associated with mental and physical health outcomes. Findings of this study suggest that gendered racial identity centrality can serve a buffering role against the negative mental and physical health effects of gendered racism for Black women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
This paper presents research exploring how stereotypes that are simultaneously racialized and gendered affect Black women. We investigated the mental and physical health consequences of Black women’s awareness that others hold these stereotypes and tested whether this association was moderated by the centrality of racial identity. A structural equation model tested among 609 young Black women revealed that metastereotype awareness (i.e., being aware that others hold negative stereotypes of one’s group) predicted negative mental health outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, hostility), which, in turn, predicted diminished self-care behaviors and greater drug and alcohol use for coping. High racial centrality exacerbated the negative association between metastereotype awareness and self-care. We discuss implications of the findings for clinical practice and for approaches to research using intersectionality frameworks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
The increasing popularity of the concept of intersectionality in the social sciences, including in psychology, represents an opportunity to reflect on the state of stewardship of this concept, its roots, and its promise. In this context, the authors aim to promote responsible stewardship of intersectionality and to tip the momentum of intersectionality’s flourishing toward fuller use and engagement of its roots and promise for understanding and challenging dynamics of power, privilege, and oppression. To this end, this article provides a set of guidelines for reflection and action. The authors organize these guidelines along 3 major formulations of intersectionality: intersectionality as a field of study, as analytic strategy or disposition, and as critical praxis for social justice. Ultimately, the authors call for expanding the use of intersectionality toward fuller engagement with its roots in Black feminist thought, its current interdisciplinary richness and potential, and its central aims to challenge and transform structures and systems of power, privilege, and oppression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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