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Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement (DPM)
DPM and counseling theories. Although the primary emphasis, here, is placed on the intriguing parallels between DPM and Gestalt theory (Perls, 1969), mental health counselors identifying with a behavioral (Wilson, 2000), person-centered (Rogers, 1980), or Jungian (Douglas, 2000) framework may find DPM concepts useful in their work with bereaved clients. With regard to behavioral and person-center approaches, recent research (Schut et al., 1997) found that widowed males assigned to a person-centered intervention showed lower distress following treatment, as did widowed females assigned to the behavioral approach; whereas men assigned to the behavioral and women to a person-centered approach exhibited little improvement. Schut et al. suggested that women naturally tend toward loss-oriented coping while men naturally tend toward restoration-focused coping and argued that individuals may benefit more when treatment challenges them to concentrate on the type of coping processes to which they are less accustomed. Because DPM has a strong non-linear emphasis, the counseling theories that emphasize holism and balance are a natural fit. For instance, the link with Jung's analytical approach is clear as he viewed the world in terms of paired opposites engaged in active struggle (Douglas). Similarly, Gestalt counseling theory suggests that individuals are self-regulating and inclined toward growth, with health being defined as the organism's awareness, recognition, and appropriate attention to needs and desires as hierarchically required (Yontef & Jacobs, 2000). Through the process of organismic self-regulation, the most pressing need / desire emerges from the background of the mind as a figure. When this figured need is addressed and attended to, it then blends into the background as the next figure in the hierarchy emerges. For healthy individuals, this process is fluid, and figures shift quite rapidly.
Another strong connection between DPM and Gestalt theory is the attention given by both to dualism and oscillation. According to Gestalt theory, life is marked by polarities (Yontef & Jacobs, 2000), and each figure stands against an opposite ground. For healthy functioning, both poles of each dichotomy must be allowed to become figures, and the constantly shifting balance between the poles is critical to the process of creative adjustment. As connected with the DPM, bereaved individuals have a dichotomy with regard to loss- and restoration-oriented coping, and both poles must be allowed to rise as figures and be addressed as hierarchically required by the organismic functioning of the individual. After a loss, bereaved individuals need to self-regulate both the pace and intensity of their grief, following a comfortable rhythm of avoidance of and attention to the pain so that they become neither overwhelmed nor numb (Sabar, 2000). Based on her clinical work with the bereaved, Clark (1982) took this notion of rhythm even further and defined times within the mourning process as either periods of connecting or separating. The similarity between her descriptions of these periods and the loss and restoration orientations of DPM is striking. More specifically, Clark explained that during connecting times, "people were involved in their life activities, making plans, doing everyday tasks, exploring and experimenting" (p. 59). In contrast, when in a time of separating, peoples attention centered on the impact of their loss. Thus, in a wave-like rhythm, "therapy flows back and forth during transition times between awareness of separating and awareness of connecting, between times of 'living' and times of 'dying'" (p. 61).
Just as Stroebe and Schut (1999,2001) described complicated grief as a disturbance in the oscillation, Gestalt theory suggests that neurotic regulation occurs when some aspects of one's mental background are not allowed to become figures, that is, when the polarities are not fluid, but rather become hardened dichotomies (Yontef & JacoDs, 2000). The recommendation for mental health counselors with regard to both approaches is to foster the acknowledgement and expression of both dimensions, loss and restoration, thereby encouraging clients toward balance.
Diagnosis in Gestalt Therapy
- Roubal, J., Francesetti, G., and Gecele, M. Aesthetic Diagnosis in Gestalt Therapy. Behavioral Sciences, October 2017, 7(70). p 1-13.
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Table of Contents
In recent years, innovative approaches have been implemented in counseling and psychotherapy research, creating new and exciting interdisciplinary subfields. The findings that emerged from the implementation of these approaches demonstrate their potential to deepen our understanding of therapeutic change. This article serves as an introduction to the “Innovative Approaches to Exploring Processes of Change in Counseling Psychology” special issue. The special issue includes articles representing several of the most promising approaches. Each article seeks to serve as a sourcebook for implementing a given approach in counseling research, in such areas as the assessment of coregulation processes, language processing, physiology, motion synchrony, event-related potentials, hormonal measures, and sociometric signals captured by a badge. The studies included in this special issue represent some of the most promising pathways for future studies and provide valuable resources for researchers, as well as clinicians interested in implementing such approaches and/or being educated consumers of empirical findings based on such approaches. This introduction synthesizes the articles in the special issue and proposes a list of guidelines for conducting and consuming research that implements new approaches for studying the process of therapeutic change. We believe that we are not far from the day when these approaches will be instrumental in everyday counseling practice, where they can assist therapists and patients in their collaborative efforts to reduce suffering and increase thriving. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
Physiological synchronization is the study of how individuals in interaction coregulate their physiology. The topic has sparked increasing interest in counseling and psychotherapy research, where it has been found to be associated with the therapeutic alliance, clinicians’ empathy and patients’ outcome. Physiological synchronization allows researcher to investigate subtle but fundamental aspects of the clinical process through objective measures. In this article, we aim to offer a guide to researchers and clinicians to explore this growing field of study. We begin by reviewing the existing literature of physiological synchronization in clinical relationships, and then we provide practical guidelines for research. We discuss the various aspects involved in synchronization studies: study design, selection of physiological signals, data analytic approaches, and interpretation of results. To better illustrate how to implement these types of design, we provide a running example describing the data collection and analysis of a single-case study. In the example we discuss both how to conduct a longitudinal nomothetic analysis, as well as a moment-to-moment idiographic exploration of the clinical content. In this latter analysis, in particular, we show how physiological synchronization can be used in combination with 2 transcripts analysis tools, the Patient Attachment Coding System, and the Therapist Attunement Scales to reach a deeper understanding of the ongoing processes. We conclude by arguing that research in counseling and psychotherapy has much to gain from and contribute to the overall development of our understanding of physiological synchronization in human interaction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
Artificial intelligence generally and machine learning specifically have become deeply woven into the lives and technologies of modern life. Machine learning is dramatically changing scientific research and industry and may also hold promise for addressing limitations encountered in mental health care and psychotherapy. The current paper introduces machine learning and natural language processing as related methodologies that may prove valuable for automating the assessment of meaningful aspects of treatment. Prediction of therapeutic alliance from session recordings is used as a case in point. Recordings from 1,235 sessions of 386 clients seen by 40 therapists at a university counseling center were processed using automatic speech recognition software. Machine learning algorithms learned associations between client ratings of therapeutic alliance exclusively from session linguistic content. Using a portion of the data to train the model, machine learning algorithms modestly predicted alliance ratings from session content in an independent test set (Spearman’s ρ = .15, p < .001). These results highlight the potential to harness natural language processing and machine learning to predict a key psychotherapy process variable that is relatively distal from linguistic content. Six practical suggestions for conducting psychotherapy research using machine learning are presented along with several directions for future research. Questions of dissemination and implementation may be particularly important to explore as machine learning improves in its ability to automate assessment of psychotherapy process and outcome. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
Early change is an increasing area of investigation in psychotherapy research. In this study, we analyzed patterns of early change in interpersonal problems and their relationship to nonverbal synchrony and multiple outcome measures for the first time. We used growth mixture modeling to identify different latent classes of early change in interpersonal problems with 212 patients who underwent cognitive–behavioral treatment including interpersonal and emotion-focused elements. Furthermore, videotaped sessions were analyzed using motion energy analysis, providing values for the calculation of nonverbal synchrony to predict early change in interpersonal problems. The relationship between early change patterns and symptoms as well as overall change in interpersonal problems was also investigated. Three latent subgroups were identified: 1 class with slow improvement (n = 145), 1 class with fast improvement (n = 12), and 1 early deterioration class (n = 55). Lower levels of early nonverbal synchrony were significantly related to fast improvement in interpersonal change patterns. Furthermore, such patterns predicted treatment outcome in symptoms and interpersonal problems. The results suggest that nonverbal synchrony is associated with early change patterns in interpersonal problems, which are also predictive of treatment outcome. Limitations of the applied methods as well as possible applications in routine care are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychotherapy process research methods often require extensive time and resources. Technology innovations, such as wearable sensors, have the potential to increase the efficiency of process data collection and processing. One such tool is the Sociometric Badge (SB), which is a portable, palm-sized device that can simultaneously record raw audio and data on social signals (e.g., speech patterns, body movement) in real-time and in varied contexts. In addition to describing the nature and implications of wearable sensing devices for psychotherapy research, this article reports results from a pilot study that examined the feasibility and acceptance of these assessment devices in comparison with traditional audio recording equipment. Undergraduate students (N = 306; Mage = 19.16 years, SD = 1.44; 50.3% female) were randomly placed into 153 dyads to mimic a psychotherapy dyad. Each dyad was randomly assigned to either a SB condition (n = 75 dyads) or a standard recording device condition (n = 78 dyads), and engaged in a conversation task. Participants completed self-report items assessing perceived relationship quality and experience with the respective recording device. Between-condition tests showed that perceived relationship quality did not differ between conditions. Participants in the audio recorder (vs. SB) condition reported more awareness of the device in the room. These findings reveal comparable acceptability and feasibility of SBs to traditional audio recorders in a simulated dyad, suggesting that wearable sensing devices may be suitable for research and practice in routine psychotherapy contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
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