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Autism: Family Life - Tactics for Getting Normal Again
10 CEUs Substance Abuse: Growing Beyond 12 Step Program Dependency

Section 18
Special Considerations for ASD Diagnostic Evaluation

CEU Question 18 | CEU Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | Autism
Social Worker CEUs, Counselor CEUs, Psychologist CEs, MFT CEUs

 

The Flip Book below is from The Division of Developmental Disabilities, Missouri Department of Mental Healthealth.

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-Division of Developmental Disabilities, Missouri Department of Mental Health, Autism Spectrum Disorders:Missouri Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis, and Assessment, Thompson Foundation for Autism and the Division of Developmental Disabilities, Missouri Department of Mental Health, 2010, p. 66-77.
The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.

Online Continuing Education QUESTION 18
What are five ways that diagnosing older children or individuals may differ from evaluation of young children in a number of important ways? Record the letter of the correct answer the CEU Answer Booklet.

 
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CEU Answer Booklet for this course | Autism
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Examining parent use of specific intervention techniques during a 12-week training program based on the Early Start Denver Model
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Contemporary parent-implemented early intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorder usually incorporate a range of techniques with different theoretical underpinnings. While research suggests that parents often learn to implement interventions with an acceptable degree of overall fidelity, there is limited research into parent use of individual intervention techniques. This study included five mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a 12-week parent training program based on the Early Start Denver Model. Ten-minute play samples were coded for the mothers’ use of 18 specific Early Start Denver Model techniques before, during, and 1 month after the training program. The correlation between the mothers’ use of each Early Start Denver Model technique and their child’s level of engagement and expressive language was also calculated. Results suggest that all mothers increased the number of techniques that they were using from baseline to parent training. Some Early Start Denver Model techniques were moderately or strongly correlated with both child engagement and expressive language. There was considerable variation in outcomes across all mother–child dyads. These preliminary results have implications for how parents are trained/coached to implement interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder.Lay abstractParents of young children with autism are often taught to deliver interventions which involve several different types of strategies. Research suggests that parents can usually learn to deliver these interventions but not much is known about their use of each specific intervention strategy. This study included five mothers of young children with autism who participated in a 12-week parent training program based on the Early Start Denver Model. We measured their use of 18 different ESDM strategies before, during, and 1 month after the training program. We found that parents increased the number of strategies that they used during the training program. There were differences between mothers in terms of the ESDM strategies that they used the most during the training. We also found that some of the strategies were more closely related to children’s levels of engagement and language than others. This suggests that parent training should be adapted to suit each parent’s needs.
Coming to understand the child has autism: A process illustrating parents’ evolving readiness for engaging in care
Autism, Ahead of Print.
We report results from a large qualitative study regarding the process of parents coming to understand the child has autism starting from the time of initial developmental concerns. Specifically, we present findings relevant to understanding how parents become motivated and prepared for engaging in care at this early stage. The study included primary data from 45 intensive interviews with 32 mothers and 9 expert professionals from urban and rural regions of Ontario, Canada. Grounded theory methods were used to guide data collection and analysis. Parents’ readiness (motivation and capacity) for engagement develops progressively at different rates as they follow individual paths of meaning making. Four optional steps account for their varied trajectories: forming an image of difference, starting to question the signs, knowing something is wrong, and being convinced it’s autism. Both the nature of the information and professional help parents seek, and the urgency with which they seek them, evolve in predictable ways depending on how far they have progressed in understanding their child has autism. Results indicate the need for sensitivity to parents’ varying awareness and readiness for involvement when engaging with them in early care, tailoring parent support interventions, and otherwise planning family-centered care pathways.
Visual supports at home and in the community for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: A scoping review
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Visual supports are recommended in autism spectrum disorder clinical guidelines. They can reduce anxiety, increase predictability, support communication and improve participation. They are implemented regularly in schools, but evidence about home visual supports is limited. This article reports results of a scoping literature review, alongside qualitative evaluation with parents and professionals. We report findings from 34 studies, identifying four categories of visual support and heterogeneity in participant characteristics, intervention methods, environments and outcome measures. Qualitative data from questionnaires (n = 101) and focus groups generated key themes about home visual supports, through thematic analysis: (1) Accessibility, (2) Participation-focussed (3) Individualisation, (4) Teaching Methods, (5) Consistency, and (6) Information and Training. We propose consensus with terminology and implications for practice and research.
A systematic review of screening tools for the detection of autism spectrum disorder in mainland China and surrounding regions
Autism, Ahead of Print.
Screening for autism spectrum disorder is the first step toward early detection and diagnosis, thereby impacting the likelihood of children accessing early intervention and, importantly, improving long-term outcomes. This systematic review aimed to (a) establish a clear baseline of autism spectrum disorder screening tools currently used throughout mainland China and surrounding regions, (b) identify the strengths and limitations of these instruments, and (c) develop specific recommendations regarding screening for autism spectrum disorder throughout Chinese-speaking countries. Databases were searched for recent (2015–2018) articles published in Chinese or English languages. Twenty-two studies (13 Chinese, 9 English) met inclusion criteria; two from Taiwan and the remainder from mainland China. Studies varied greatly in the extent of psychometric analyses and reported autism spectrum disorder prevalence. The majority of diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. (DSM-IV) or 5th ed. (DSM-5)) criteria, although a small number of studies utilized gold-standard diagnostic assessment instruments. It is recommended that a systematic, multi-tiered, screening network be established to improve the identification of autism spectrum disorder in China and surrounding regions. Assessment and diagnosis need to be culturally appropriate, and amenable to low-resource settings. In addition, increased public awareness programs to reduce stigma will be important in improving outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder.
Exploratory factor analysis of the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for children with autism spectrum disorder
Autism, Ahead of Print.
The Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist measures social/social-communication skills and behavioral flexibility/regulation of children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Prior studies provided support for the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist total score for these children; however, no studies have examined the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist factor structure. This exploratory factor analysis examined the factor structure and internal consistency of parent ratings on the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for a sample of 331 children, ages 6–12 years, with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Results yielded a correlated three-factor solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated very good internal consistency reliability. Findings supported the presence and interpretability of three subscales, as well as derivation of a total composite reflecting overall prosocial and adaptive skills and behaviors. Implications for assessment and research are discussed.

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