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Previously, we discussed the using the
Cold Weather Analogy to help your clients accept and experience negative feelings
towards their highly valued Great Catch.
As you know, one of the reasons
why accepting and expressing these negative feelings is so difficult is because
victims of controlling abusive relationships are "Invisible Victims
and usually need feeling-validation.
you know, the victim of verbal abuse is invisible because she does not have physical
bruises as evidence of being victimized and attacked. Therefore, she is invisible
to, for example, the legal system. To magnify the problem, her family and friends
may view her as being lucky to have gotten such a great guy.
age 25, was so worried about meeting the needs of her "Great Catch"
that she gave away much of her power in the relationship. Sound familiar? Thus,
along with her power, she also gave up much of the control she had over her life.
I've found, like you, that the pain of this loss of power and control is invisible.
Unlike physical abuse, the recipient of the verbal abuse, which lacks physical
evidence, may not be validated by her support system.
Marcy stated, "If only
Ron would just hit me once and give me a big bruise across my cheek, I would know
I was being abused! Right now I just don't know. I feel like he's some kind of
invisible controller in my life." Can you see how Marcy's disbelief and denial
that abuse is taking place is evident in this statement? This, of course, sets
the scene for her later minimizing and selective forgetting, as we will discuss.
3 Feeling-Validation Strategies Because
the loss of her power was invisible unlike physical abuse, I reframed Ron in Marcy's
relationship using her term of the "invisible controller," because he
left no visible wounds. Here are three feeling-validation strategies I used to
validate Marcy's feelings of being abused. See if you would use any of these three
or some variation.
Strategy #1: Jekyll-and-Hyde Reframing
With Marcy I found a Jekyll-and-Hyde
reframing technique helpful as a feeling-validation strategy. Here's how it worked.
a. First, I used
Marcys comment in a session as the springboard for this technique to validate
her feelings. Marcy stated Ron seemed like such the All-American guy initially.
But when I confront him about our lack of time together, he lashes out like some
type of ghoul. His whole facial expression, body, and voice changes. He becomes
like a totally different person. What came to mind was that old movie, Dr.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
expanded upon Marcy's Jekyll-and-Hyde description by saying, For you, when
hearing Rons promises of time you would spend together, Ron was like Dr.
Jekyll. He was your Great Catch; the ideal partner. Marcy agreed,
Yeah, at those times its easy to forget about his other side.
as you know the Dr. Jekyll, All-American guy-side, actually facilitates
Mr. Hyde's abusive goal of control and dominance of the relationship.
b. To increase Marcys awareness, the second step, after expanding and exploring
her Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde description, was to reposition Ron and to increase
her awareness that, while Ron may be kind and supportive on some occasions, this
kind and supportive behavior did not excuse Ron for the times when he breaks an
agreement and does not follow through with his promises of time to be spent together.
c. The third step, to increase Marcys awareness, after expanding and exploring
her Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde description, was to reposition Ron, and to enhance
her understanding that, while Ron may be kind and supportive on some occasions,
this kind and supportive behavior does not excuse Ron for the times when he broke
an agreement and did not follow through with his promises to spend more time with
of a client you are treating who feels she is in a relationship with a controlling,
abusive partner, while at the same time, she feels that he is a "Great Catch,"
a prized possession so to speak.
Marcy used the term Dr. Jekyll,
and I was able to take the ball and run with it by referring back to this concept,
in subsequent sessions, to increase her awareness of the invisible wounds created
by Rons lack of physical presence.
Some other descriptions clients have
used are: two-faced, wearing a mask, phony knight on a white horse, and so on.
Take a moment and think. In your next session with your "Marcy," who
is being verbally but not physically abused by their significant other, would
it be a good idea for you expand upon her descriptions to reposition her "Great
To validate Marcy's feeling of abuse, I explored her disbelief and
denial. I depersonalized the situation by asking how she felt about someone in
a relationship with an abusive Mr. Hyde who was rarely present. Being physically
unavailable can be a powerfully seductive tool of control, especially when someone
feels they have gotten a "Great Catch" in the relationship.
Decreasing Selective Forgetting
addition to repositioning the "Great Catch" based upon the clients
description, a second feeling-validation strategy I have found helpful is to have
my client recall their first memory of abuse.
In addition to using Marcy's
Jekyll/Hyde description, secondly, I find it helpful to increase her awareness
of when the verbal abuse first started.
Have you found, like I, that disbelief
and denial go hand in hand with selective forgetting? Can you name a client right
now who has developed "amnesia," so-to-speak, as a means of coping?
For many clients, like Jenny, her first encounter with verbal assaults led to
a feeling of shock and then to blocking the memory. As I describe Jenny, see if
you agree that, helping her to unblock the memory of Tom's abuse was crucial to
her validation of the abuse taking place and the resulting motivation to change.
age 30, married Tom, an electrician, after they had dated for 4 months. The first
time he yelled in a rant for five minutes was on their wedding night. Jenny stated,
It was like an out-of-body experience for me. I couldnt believe that
Tom would yell so violently. And all over the fact that I tripped slightly on
the hem of my nightgown as I walked towards him in the bed. His face actually
turned red. He yelled things like, clumsy klutz, you ruined this perfect
moment for me! You don't think I'm going to put up with all your bullshit like
I did when we were dating, do you? At first I was afraid. What if he hit
me? But after he wound down, he felt so bad I didnt think it would ever
happen again. I remained optimistic. I thought we were going to be Mr. and Mrs.
Happily-Married couple again.
For Jenny the power of feeling that she has
gotten the Great Catch is evidenced by her enthusiastic accolade which
followed, "But Tom is everything I ever wanted. He makes really good money
as an electrician. He doesn't drink and wants kids like I do." This homage
is a great facilitator to her denial.
you know, like many clients, Jenny put the honeymoon night incident behind her
and tried to pretend that it had never happened. Think of a client you are currently
treating whose way of coping is to ignore the problem. Your client convinces herself
that feelings of devastation aren't such a big deal. Forgetting the impact of
overwhelming events is a common defense mechanism we all use to cut life crises
down to manageable bits and pieces that can be handled. I have found, like you,
that just by the act of encouraging Jenny's expression of feelings, and recall
of the forgotten events of the first time she can recall that sinking feeling
of being abused, helps to affirm to Jenny that her feelings are valid.
of a client you are treating, or have treated, that might benefit by recalling
the first time they felt abused. Would this recall be a beneficial feeling-validation
third feeling-validation strategy, in addition to repositioning the "Great
Catch" based upon the client's description, and validating feelings concerning
the first, perhaps forgotten, episode of abuse, is validation by uncovering excuse-making
and minimizing. How do you respond to your client's excuse-making and minimizing
regarding the abusive treatment they receive?
you will see, Jenny used excuse-making and minimizing to cope with Toms
increasing angry flare-ups. She blamed the honeymoon-nightgown-tripping episode
on too much stress for Tom at work. She explained, "I know he couldn't help
himself from getting angry. Its no big deal now. There had just been a major
subdivision power outage the day before our wedding. Who wouldn't be upset with
that level of responsibility? I'm lucky to have him. I'm lucky to have someone
like him as a husband. He's really a great guy and didn't mean it"
have found a good feeling-validation strategy with a client like Jenny, who is
excuse-making and minimizing, is assisting the client in identifying their underlying
values. As you know, underlying values guide your clients habitual reactions,
as part of their core self.
Four Underlying Values
In Jenny, her four underlying values that supported
her excuse-making were: 1. be a good partner at all costs, 2. mask my true feelings, 3. minimize generating or expressing negative feelings, and 4. hold on to my "great
Catch" no matter how bad it gets.
To help Jenny to uncover these values that
facilitated her excuse making, I used the Gestalt technique of asking her what
her inner dialogue is while Tom is yelling. For example, Jenny stated her inner
dialogue when Tom was yelling was, "It isn't that bad, I can understand why
this with Marcy, who I described at the beginning of this track. Marcy's inner dialogue was, "Oh, it looks
like he's being Mr. Hyde again. I'm just going to forget this happened."
What do you think about the idea of helping your client in their next session
identify underlying values by asking them what their inner dialogue is. Do you
feel a discussion of their inner dialogue will help your client identify his or
her underlying values in your next session by asking them to describe their inner
summary the three feeling-validation strategies just described are: 1. Repositioning
of the abuser based upon client descriptions; 2. Decreasing selective forgetting; 3. Exploring excuse-making or minimizing.
- Carlson, R. G., Wheeler, N. J., & Adams, J. J. (Apr 2018) The Influence of Individual‐Oriented Relationship Education on Equality and Conflict‐Related Behaviors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96(2), p144-154.
Emotional Abuse in Intimate Relationships: The Role of Gender and Age
- Karakurt, G., & Silver, K. E. (2013). Emotional abuse in intimate relationships: the role of gender and age. Violence and victims, 28(5), 804–821.
Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Carlson, R. G., Wheeler, N. J., & Adams, J. J. (Apr 2018). The Influence of Individual‐Oriented Relationship Education on Equality and Conflict‐Related Behaviors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96(2), 144-154.
Figueredo, A. J., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P. R., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Kavanagh, P. S., Beck, C. J. A., SotomayorPeterson, M., Jiang, Y., & Li, N. P. (2018). Intimate partner violence, interpersonal aggression, and life history strategy. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 1–31.
Graham, S. M., & Clark, M. S. (2006). Self-esteem and organization of valenced information about others: The "Jekyll and Hyde"-ing of relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4), 652–665.
Halmos, Miklós B., Parrott, Dominic J., Henrich, Christopher C., & Eckhardt, Christopher I. (2020) The structure of aggression in conflict-prone couples: Validation of a measure of the Forms and Functions of Intimate Partner Aggression (FFIPA). Psychological Assessment, 32(5), 461-472.
Happ, C., Melzer, A., & Steffgen, G. (Apr 2015). Like the good or bad guy—Empathy in antisocial and prosocial games. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4(2), 80-96.
Keulen, R. F., Adam, J. J., Fischer, M. H., Kuipers, H., & Jolles, J. (2002).
Selective reaching: Evidence for multiple frames of reference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28(3), 515–526.
Lundh, L. (Mar 2017). Relation and technique in psychotherapy: Two partly overlapping categories. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 27(1), 59-78.
Winston, C. N., Maher, H., & Easvaradoss, V. (Jun 2017). Conceptualizations of the good and the bad life: Two sides of the same coin? The Humanistic Psychologist, 45(2), 134-161.
Jekyll-and-Hyde reframing can result in what benefit for your client?
To select and enter your answer go to Test.