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Motivation can be defined as a set of internal drives, needs, and interests,
which create a behavior towards a particular target behavior.
On the tape, the listener is asked to assess if the resident is
alert enough to be aware of their behavior. Cognitive ability
affects the resident's responsibility to change their behavior.Problematic
behaviors are often the result of cognitive activities, such
as thinking, fantasizing, imagining, or planning. Covert behaviors,
such as these, are essentially inaccessible to direct observation.
If your client or staff member, for example, possesses an adequate
behavioral repertoire for acting on the basis of his or her thoughts,
changing the cognitive response can become the primary task of
a helping process. As you know, many of your clients seek assistance,
but often they are motivated not so much to change, as to avoid
discomfort. Here is an example of avoidance of discomfort. On
the tape, to motivate a resident who is demanding a level of care
higher than that provided by the facility, it is suggested staff
state, "Hester, our home is only able to provide a certain
level of care for its tenants. When that level of care increases
beyond a certain point, you will no longer be an appropriate placement
in this Assisted Living Community." Of course, client abandonment
and prior notice issues also need to be addressed in such a situation.Extinction: It is sometimes necessary to eliminate undesirable behavior.
One way to do this is to determine what reinforcers are maintaining
the undesirable behavior. Your goal may then be to remove that
reinforcer. This procedure is called extinction. Upon removal
of reinforcement, the behavior often weakens and finally disappears.
However, the behavior in question may initially increase before
decreasing. On the tape, Joe's body odor bothered other residents,
as well as being a health hazard to him. The reinforcer was staying
in the facility. Staff informed Joe that his behavior may become
inappropriate for the level of care provided.
procedures: Another way to reduce the frequency of unwanted behavior is to
use aversive procedures. These procedures can be used in three main arrangements:
escape procedures, avoidance training, and punishment.
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