modeling, client or staff members observe someone else performing
the target behavior. Modeling can be a valuable aid in working
with mentally retarded or dementia clients. Modeling occurs when
the therapist or administrator performs a behavior and this performance
prompts imitation of that behavior.
A. Verbally summarize the important aspects of the modeling. The
use of summary instructions prepare the observer to watch for
particular aspects of the model's performance. On the tape, the
modeling is summarized by stating, "I'm going to show you
how to get into your wheelchair."
(1) Give an example of verbally summarizing a task to be modeled.
B. Model parts of a behavior: In order for learning to occur,
a client or staff member must attend to and accurately perceive
the important feature of your modeling. It is assumed that during
the process of observation, your client or staff member acquires
images and verbal representations (cognitions) of the model's
behavior that are then coded, organized, or rehearsed to facilitate
their storage in memory. On the tape it suggested, after you tell
Mildred what you are going to demonstrate, limit your instruction
to essential key words. If Mildred still seems to be in a fog,
you might check the pacing of your demonstration and repeat it
by saying something like, "I know there's a lot of steps
involved in this; let me show you again in slow motion."
(2) Give an example of a part of the behavior summarized in
#1, that could be modeled.
C. Rehearsal of the behavior means to engage repeatedly in the
behavior, to ensure that the behavior is well-learned and that
your client or staff member will be successful.
D. Give feedback and reinforcement. On the tape, the staff member
is reminded to use the skills learned in Module One and reinforce
Mildred's independence by saying, "Mildred, good job getting
into your chair!"
(3) Give an example of a verbal positive reinforcement.
Graduated modeling procedures can also be used when demonstrating
complicated skills or behaviors. The skills are presented and
mastered in their components or smaller parts. Then the entire
behavior sequence is reconstructed. When teaching motor behaviors,
such as driving an automobile or playing a musical instrument,
the steps need to be broken down into simple components with the
basic steps individually demonstrated. The degree to which you
need to simplify depends on the complexity of the skill and on
the capabilities of your client or staff member. On the tape,
the transfer to the wheelchair is broken down into parts by asking,
"Mildred, can you scoot to the edge of your bed and place
your feet on the floor?"
is a form of modeling that you can use as a training tool. As you are aware, the
target behavior is presented in a simulated situation. The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.
The preceding section contained several Demonstration techniques.
Write three case study examples of how you might use the contents of this section
of the Manual or the Demonstration section of the audio tape in your
practice. Affix extra paper for your Journaling entries to the end of this Manual.
Men younger than 50: The more you smoke, the more you stroke - April 19, 2018 The more cigarettes men younger than 50 smoked, the more likely they were to have a stroke. Researchers say, while smoking cessation is the goal, just reducing the number of cigarettes younger men smoke could help reduce their stroke risk.