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Module #3
Course Manual
Demonstration

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CEU Answer Booklet | Table of Contents | Geriatric & Aging
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 ice cream Behavioral Interventions social work continuing edWith modeling, client or staff members observe someone else performing the target behavior. Modeling can be a valuable aid in working with mentally retarded or dementia clients. Modeling occurs when the therapist or administrator performs a behavior and this performance prompts imitation of that behavior.


Modeling Procedure

A. Verbally summarize the important aspects of the modeling. The use of summary instructions prepare the observer to watch for particular aspects of the model's performance. On the tape, the modeling is summarized by stating, "I'm going to show you how to get into your wheelchair."

(1) Give an example of verbally summarizing a task to be modeled.


B. Model parts of a behavior: In order for learning to occur, a client or staff member must attend to and accurately perceive the important feature of your modeling. It is assumed that during the process of observation, your client or staff member acquires images and verbal representations (cognitions) of the model's behavior that are then coded, organized, or rehearsed to facilitate their storage in memory. On the tape it suggested, after you tell Mildred what you are going to demonstrate, limit your instruction to essential key words. If Mildred still seems to be in a fog, you might check the pacing of your demonstration and repeat it by saying something like, "I know there's a lot of steps involved in this; let me show you again in slow motion."

(2) Give an example of a part of the behavior summarized in #1, that could be modeled.


C. Rehearsal of the behavior means to engage repeatedly in the behavior, to ensure that the behavior is well-learned and that your client or staff member will be successful.

D. Give feedback and reinforcement. On the tape, the staff member is reminded to use the skills learned in Module One and reinforce Mildred's independence by saying, "Mildred, good job getting into your chair!"

(3) Give an example of a verbal positive reinforcement.



Graduated modeling procedures can also be used when demonstrating complicated skills or behaviors. The skills are presented and mastered in their components or smaller parts. Then the entire behavior sequence is reconstructed. When teaching motor behaviors, such as driving an automobile or playing a musical instrument, the steps need to be broken down into simple components with the basic steps individually demonstrated. The degree to which you need to simplify depends on the complexity of the skill and on the capabilities of your client or staff member. On the tape, the transfer to the wheelchair is broken down into parts by asking, "Mildred, can you scoot to the edge of your bed and place your feet on the floor?"

Role-playing is a form of modeling that you can use as a training tool. As you are aware, the target behavior is presented in a simulated situation.
The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.

Personal Reflection Exercise #3

The preceding section contained several Demonstration techniques. Write three case study examples of how you might use the contents of this section of the Manual or the “Demonstration” section of the audio tape in your practice. Affix extra paper for your Journaling entries to the end of this Manual.
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