According to Phillips, when can Body Dysmorphic Disorder be diagnosed?
According to the DSM, what are the two subtypes of BDD, and how do their classifications lend to controversy over whether both subtypes are in fact the same disorder?
According to Muehlenkamp, why may women be more prone to depression and BDD than men?
According to Ackerman, what occurs in the majority of clients with BDD who have aesthetic plastic surgery to correct a perceived flaw?
According to Eggers, what kind of family history is most typical for clients with body dysmorphia and eating disorders?
According to Guindon, what are the three aspects of the self-esteem system?
Why can it be more useful to address selective self-esteem with a BDD client, than addressing the client’s global self-esteem?
According to the American Journal of Psychiatry, what is the rate of suicide risk in a BDD client?
According to John, what is the best indicator that BDD may be present?
What is the most effective form of psychotherapy for most BDD clients?
According to Weiss, why is Tai’Chi useful in group psychotherapy for BDD?
What are the five phases in integrative group psychotherapy for BDD?
What are the demographic characteristics found for BDD in this study?
A. Self esteem, global self esteem, and selective self esteem.
B. Most patients with BDD who have plastic surgery are dissatisfied with the results and often then become preoccupied with another part of their body. The client may seek multiple surgeries and never be satisfied with the results.
C. The five phases are: introduction and evaluation, externalized objects, internalized objects, pre-termination, and termination and review.
D. Cognitive behavior therapy is the most effective form of psychotherapy in most cases of BDD. Components of effective CBT for BDD include psychoeducation, encouragement to gradually abandon ritual behaviors, exposure and response prevention, systematic desensitization to feared situations, and instruction in thought-stopping and relaxation techniques.
E. BDD can be diagnosed if the person reports being preoccupied with some aspect of his or her appearance, or his or her entire appearance. A useful guideline is whether the person thinks about the appearance "flaw" for at least an hour a day. Clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning must also be present.
F. A client with BDD is 45 times more likely to commit suicide.
G. These families are typically well situated and well educated and, to the outside world, appear to function harmoniously. Frequently, however, the children feel tremendous pressure to excel, the parents set high standards, and negative emotions such as anger or jealousy are suppressed.
H. This disparity may result, in part, from the experiences women have as a result of self-objectification. Women who self-objectify are likely to be confronted with their perceived physical inadequacies, which could lead to feelings of hopelessness or shame, thereby increasing the risk for depressive disorders.
I. The best indicator that BDD may be present is the degree of preoccupation with appearance and resultant avoidance of occupational and social activity.
J. Global self-esteem seems to be less amenable to change than does selective self-esteem. By attending to selective self-esteem traits or characteristics that are important to the client manifesting low self-esteem, the counselor may more likely be able to assist that client in ultimately increasing his or her level of overall self-esteem.
K. The first subtype of BDD is a somatoform disorder in which insight is present; the second subtype is as a delusional variant , which is classified as a psychotic disorder (delusional disorder, somatic type).
L. T'ai Chi, an ancient form of Chinese movement art, is used as a nonintrusive and nonthreatening form of body-oriented therapy because it allows patients to have a body experience and accurate mirroring, i.e., using movement to experience inner and outer body images that are necessary for body-image development.
M. BDD may be somewhat more common in women, individuals with BDD are less likely to be married and are more likely to be divorced, and individuals with BDD are also significantly more likely to be unemployed than general population.