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Cultural Diversity, Breaking Barriers, & Racist Micro Aggressions
Cultural Diversity continuing education social worker CEUs

Section 18
The Results of Race-Based Policies

CEU Question 18 | CEU Answer Booklet | Table of Contents
Social Worker CEUs, Psychologist CEs, Counselor CEUs, MFT CEUs

In recent years, the use of race in college admissions has been vigorously contested in several states and in the race-based politics - Cultural Diversity CEUs courts. In 1996, a federal appeals court in New Orleans, deciding the Hopwood vs. Texas case, declared such a race-sensitive policy unconstitutional when its primary aim is not to remedy some specific wrong from the past. Californians have voted to ban all consideration of race in admitting students to public universities. Surprisingly, however, amid much passionate debate, there has been little hard evidence of how these policies work and what their consequences have been.

To remedy this deficiency, we examined the college and later-life experiences of more than 35,000 students—almost 3,000 of whom were black—who had entered 28 selective colleges and universities in the fall of 1976 and the fall of 1989. This massive database, built jointly by the schools and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, for the first time links information such as SAT scores and college majors to experiences after college, including graduate and professional degrees, earnings and civic involvement. Most of our study focused on African Americans and whites, because the Latino population at these schools was too small to permit the same sort of analysis. What did we discover?

Compared with their extremely high-achieving white classmates, black students in general received somewhat lower college grades and graduated at moderately lower rates. The reasons for these disparities are not fully understood, and selective institutions need to be more creative in helping improve black performance, as a few universities already have succeeded in doing. Still, 75 percent graduated within six years, a figure well above the 40 percent of blacks and 59 percent of whites who graduated nationwide from the 305 universities tracked by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Moreover, blacks did not earn degrees from these selective schools by majoring in easy subjects. They chose substantially the same concentrations as whites and were just as likely to have difficult majors, such as those in the sciences.
- Williams, M. E. (2001). How Should Policymakers Respond to Minorities' Concerns? In Race relations: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 125-126). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.

Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Mental Health Outcomes Among African Americans

- Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. (2007). Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 201-225. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190212
The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.

Personal Reflection Exercise #4
The preceding section contained information about the results of race-based policies. Write three case study examples regarding how you might use the content of this section in your practice.

Online Continuing Education QUESTION 18
What did their study discover about the performances of African-American college students as compared to their white classmates? Record the letter of the correct answer the CEU Answer Booklet.

 
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The article above contains foundational information. Articles below contain optional updates.
Black Principals Could Boost Teacher Diversity - June 11, 2019
School districts struggle to hire staff members who reflect changing student demographics. Could the answer lie in developing a strategy to hire more principals of color?
Teachers Push for Books With More Diversity, Fewer Stereotypes - June 11, 2019
As schools add more books with main characters of color to their shelves, some teachers are going a step further and examining whether those narratives can reinforce biases.
Black Students in Charter Schools Are More Likely to Have Black Teachers - June 04, 2019
A study from the Fordham Institute says while traditional public schools and charter schools serve the same proportion of black students, charters have 35 percent more black teachers.
Districts Struggle to Hire Black Teachers. Is the Solution Hiring More Black Principals? - May 31, 2019
A black principal increased the likelihood that a new teacher hire would be black by up to 7 percentage points and a drop in black teacher mobility by 2 to 5 percentage points, according to new research. Schools with black principals also saw positive effects on black students' math performance, ev
Teachers of Color Get Lower Evaluation Scores Than Their White Peers, Study Finds - May 22, 2019
The study also found that male teachers receive low ratings more often than female teachers.

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